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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Antitumor Therapy > A new form of vaccine - spherical nucleic acid vaccine, the first application of the new crown, the effect is amazing, has been used for cancer treatment

    A new form of vaccine - spherical nucleic acid vaccine, the first application of the new crown, the effect is amazing, has been used for cancer treatment

    • Last Update: 2022-05-20
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic raging around the world, amazing progress has been made in the field of vaccine research and development, and there are more and more different types of vaccines developed based on different principles
    .
     
    Recently, Chad Mirkin 's  team from Northwestern University  published a research paper entitled: Sphericalnucleic acids as an infectious disease vaccine platform in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) [1 ]
    .
     
    The study applied spherical nucleic acid (SNA) to the development of a new crown vaccine .
    In animal tests, only one dose of spherical nucleic acid nanovaccine was enough to protect against new coronavirus
    infection
    by 100% .
    More importantly, this spherical nucleic acid nanovaccine can not only be applied to contain the new crown pandemic, but can also be extended to other infectious diseases, and even other new infectious diseases that may break out in the future
    .
     
     What sets the spherical nucleic acid vaccine apart from other vaccines is its unique structural design, said first author  Michelle Teplensky
    , Ph.
    D.
    , of the study .
    Previous vaccine development has focused more on the selection of
    immunogens or the activation ability of adjuvants, rather than how these components are perfectly presented to the immune system in structure
    .
     
    Spherical nucleic acid vaccine
     
    The study uses spherical nucleic acid (Sphericalnucleic acids, SNA), which was developed by Professor Chad Mirkin , academician of the Third Academy of Sciences of the United States and foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences   .
    It is a spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle formed by connecting nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) to the surface of nanoparticles.
    Efficient entry into the body and rapid stimulation of the immune system

    .
    Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) have been previously tested in more than 60 cell types, and corresponding vaccines have been designed for a variety of diseases
    .
    In March 2021, a research team from Northwestern University  published a paper in the journal
    Science Translational Medicine
    [2] .
     
    The research team developed an experimental spherical nucleic acid (SNA) drug, which was demonstrated in a clinical trial against lethal glioblastoma to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, suppress oncogene expression levels, and trigger tumor cell death
    .
    The research results are significant because it is the first time that a nanomedicine penetrates the blood-brain barrier by intravenous infusion and alters the genetic mechanism of the tumor to cause tumor cell death

    .
     
    In addition, spherical nucleic acid (SNA) vaccines for triple-negative breast cancer have been validated preclinically, and more spherical nucleic acid vaccines for other cancers are in development .

    Development of spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine
     
    The development of a vaccine usually takes years, but with the new crown pandemic, the field of vaccine development has made amazing progress
    .
    The research team assessed whether spherical nucleic acids could be used to create an effective Covid-19 vaccine and expand its reach

    .
    It is reported that the research team completed the project in just 9 months

    .
     
    The classic viral immune process requires viral antigens —which tell the immune system what virus to target—and adjuvants —to stimulate the immune system and improve the immune effect of the antigen
    .
    However, how to present these two components to immune cells in the proper ratio is still a very difficult problem

    .
     
    Integrating antigens and adjuvants into a single structural support may be the key to solving this problem
    .
    In this study, the research team encapsulated the SARS-CoV-2 RBD in a liposome core, and used TLR9 agonist CpG oligonucleotides that stimulate the immune system as immune adjuvants attached around the liposome core

    .
     

    Structural pattern diagram of spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine

     
    The research team injected the uniquely designed spherical nucleic acid Covid-19 vaccine into mice subcutaneously to elicit an immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and then monitored antibody production for several weeks after injection
    .
    Two weeks after injection, mice vaccinated with the spherical nucleic acid vaccine produced higher antibody titers than mice vaccinated with a simple saline mixture of the same composition, and even surpassed other formulations containing commercial adjuvants (which have been used with zoster, hepatitis B and influenza vaccine formulations) 14 times

    .
     

    Spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine induces the production of higher titers of neutralizing antibodies

     
    Not only that, the research team also sent their vaccine to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States for testing of new coronavirus in live animals.
    The double-blind study results showed that under high doses of new coronavirus infection, the spherical nucleic acid vaccine was injected.
    100% of the mice survived to the end of the experiment and did not develop
    lung damage caused by Covid-
    19

    .
    In contrast, all mice that were not vaccinated with the spherical nucleic acid died during the 14-day trial

    .
     
    These animal test data confirm the huge potential of spherical nucleic acid platforms in the field of new crowns and infectious diseases
    .
    In addition, spherical nucleic acid vaccines also have the advantages of less side effects and can be stored in ordinary refrigerators, which greatly reduces production, transportation and distribution costs

    .
     

    SNA vaccine protected 100% survival of mice in experimental group

     
    Professor Chad Mirkin  said the study confirmed the importance of vaccine structure, which can have a profound impact on the efficacy of vaccines
    .
    In fact, this is also a brand new attempt.
    Although the team has previously demonstrated that spherical nucleic acid vaccines can treat and
    prevent cancer, it is the first application for infectious diseases such as new coronary pneumonia
    .
     

    Against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic raging around the world, amazing progress has been made in the field of vaccine research and development, and there are more and more different types of vaccines developed based on different principles
    .
    COVID-19 Recently, Chad Mirkin 's  team from Northwestern University  published a research paper entitled: Sphericalnucleic acids as an infectious disease vaccine platform in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) [ 1] .
    Chad Mirkin 's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences The study applied spherical nucleic acid (SNA) to the development of a new crown vaccine .
    In animal tests, only one dose of spherical nucleic acid nanovaccine was enough to protect 100% from new crown virus
    infection .
    Spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine infection More importantly, this spherical nucleic acid nano-vaccine can not only be used to contain the new crown pandemic, but also can be extended to other infectious diseases, and even other new infectious diseases that may break out in the future .
     
     

      What sets the spherical nucleic acid vaccine apart from other vaccines is its unique structural design, said first author  Michelle Teplensky
    , Ph.
    D.
    , of the study .
    Previous vaccine development has focused more on the selection of
    immunogens or the activation ability of adjuvants, rather than how these components are perfectly presented to the immune system in structure
    .
    Michelle Teplensky Immune Spherical Nucleic Acid Vaccine Spherical Nucleic Acid Vaccine This study uses spherical nucleic acid (Sphericalnucleic acids, SNA), developed by Professor Chad Mirkin , academician of the Third Academy of Sciences of the United States and foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences   , which connects nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) to the surface of nanoparticles , the formed spherical nucleic acid nanoparticles can efficiently enter the body and rapidly stimulate the immune system .
    Spherical Nucleic Acids Chad Mirkin
      
    Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) have been previously tested in more than 60 cell types, and corresponding vaccines have been designed for a variety of diseases
    .
    In March 2021, a research team from Northwestern University  published a paper in the journal
    Science Translational Medicine
    [2] .
    A research team from Spherical Nucleic Acid University has developed an experimental spherical nucleic acid (SNA) drug at Science Translational Medicine , and demonstrated that the spherical nucleic acid drug can penetrate blood in a clinical trial against lethal glioblastoma .
    The brain barrier suppresses oncogene expression levels and triggers tumor cell death
    .
    The research results are significant because it is the first time that a nanomedicine penetrates the blood-brain barrier by intravenous infusion and alters the genetic mechanism of the tumor to cause tumor cell death .
    spherical nucleic acid glioblastoma
     

     In addition, spherical nucleic acid (SNA) vaccines for triple-negative breast cancer have been validated preclinically, and more spherical nucleic acid vaccines for other cancers are in development .

    Development of a spherical nucleic acid SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for breast cancer The development of a spherical nucleic acid SARS-CoV- 2 vaccine usually takes years, but with the COVID-19 pandemic, amazing progress has been made in the field of vaccine research and development .
    The research team assessed whether spherical nucleic acids could be used to create an effective Covid-19 vaccine and expand its reach .
    It is reported that the research team completed the project in just 9 months .
    The classic viral immune process requires viral antigens —which tell the immune system what virus to target—and adjuvants —to stimulate the immune system and improve the immune effect of the antigen .
    However, how to present these two components to immune cells in the proper ratio is still a very difficult problem .
    Antigen adjuvants The integration of antigen and adjuvant on a structural support may be the key to solving this problem .
    In this study, the research team encapsulated the SARS-CoV-2 RBD in a liposome core, and used TLR9 agonist CpG oligonucleotides that stimulate the immune system as immune adjuvants attached around the liposome core .
     


     

     

     

    Structural pattern diagram of spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine

    Structural pattern diagram of the spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine The research team injected this uniquely designed spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine into mice subcutaneously to induce an immune response to the new coronavirus spike protein, and then monitored the production of antibodies within a few weeks after injection.
    .
    Two weeks after injection, mice vaccinated with the spherical nucleic acid vaccine produced higher antibody titers than mice vaccinated with a simple saline mixture of the same composition, and even surpassed other formulations containing commercial adjuvants (which have been used with zoster, hepatitis B and influenza vaccine formulations) 14 times .
     

     

    Spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine induces the production of higher titers of neutralizing antibodies

    The spherical nucleic acid new crown vaccine induces the production of higher titers of neutralizing antibodies.
    Not only that, the research team also sent their vaccine to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States for testing of new coronavirus live animal infection .
    Under high-dose infection of the new coronavirus, 100% of the mice injected with the spherical nucleic acid vaccine survived to the end of the trial, and there was no
    lung damage caused by the new coronary pneumonia .
    In contrast, all mice that were not vaccinated with the spherical nucleic acid died during the 14-day trial .
    The results of the double-blind study showed that under high-dose infection of the new coronavirus, 100% of the mice injected with the spherical nucleic acid vaccine survived to the end of the trial, and there was no lung damage caused by the new coronary pneumonia .
    These animal test data confirmed the spherical nucleic acid platform Great potential in the field of Covid-19 and infectious diseases .
    In addition, spherical nucleic acid vaccines also have the advantages of less side effects and can be stored in ordinary refrigerators, which greatly reduces production, transportation and distribution costs .
     

     

     

    SNA vaccine protected 100% survival of mice in experimental group

    100% of the mice in the SNA vaccine protected experimental group The SNA vaccine protected 100 % of the mice in the experimental group.
    Professor
    Chad Mirkin said  this research study confirms the importance of vaccine structure, which can have a profound impact on the efficacy of the vaccine .
    In fact, this is also a brand new attempt.
    Although the team has previously demonstrated that spherical nucleic acid vaccines can treat and
    prevent cancer, it is the first application for infectious diseases such as new coronary pneumonia .
    Chad Mirkin Prevention
     

     

     Professor Chad Mirkin Chad Mirkin Prevention of Emerging Infectious Diseases Prevention of Emerging Infectious Diseases The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of millions of infections and millions of deaths worldwide, and has had a profound impact on human society, which also highlights emerging infectious diseases terrifying .
    Therefore, how to effectively prevent emerging infectious diseases has become a difficult problem that human beings must face .
    Today, this research provides an answer to that question to some extent .
    Dr Max Distler  , co-first author of the study  , said that while these experimental results were impressive, the team's goal was not to compete with existing Covid-19 vaccines, but to develop a new vaccine for the next infectious disease that requires a highly structured vaccine.
    be prepared
    .
    The spherical nucleic acid platform could even be used to treat complex diseases like AIDS .
    Professor Max Distler  Chad Mirkin  said that the modularity of the spherical nucleic acid vaccine research and development platform means that once a new infectious disease occurs, it may only be necessary to replace the antigen or adjuvant to quickly respond to future viruses .
    Therefore, spherical nucleic acid is not only a drug or a vaccine, but a research and development platform for various diseases and infectious diseases, which can help humans overcome intractable diseases such as cancer and emerging infectious diseases .
    Chad Mirkin 's paper link: https:// https://stm.
    sciencemag.
    org/content/13/584/eabb3945
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