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    Home > Biochemistry News > Biotechnology News > Antibiotic use after birth has important effects on infant gut microbiota and resistance

    Antibiotic use after birth has important effects on infant gut microbiota and resistance

    • Last Update: 2022-05-23
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    The importance of the human gut microbiota to health and disease is important
    .
    Disturbances in the composition of the gut microbiota in infants after birth contribute to a range of health problems early and later in life, such as infantile colic, asthma, allergies, functional gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, and altered immune development in general

    .
    Cesarean section (CS) delivery, formula feeding (as opposed to breastfeeding), and antibiotics all have an impact on the development of the neonatal gut microbiota

    .
    Antibiotic treatment, in particular, has long altered the species diversity (α-diversity) and community composition of the gut microbiota in children and adults

    .
    Microecological side effects may be more pronounced and persistent when antibiotics are administered during the early assembly stage of the gut microbiota in the first few weeks of life

    .
    However, up to 10% of newborns are prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat early-onset neonatal sepsis (sEONS) within the first week of life

    .
     

    Recently, a research paper titled "Effects of early-life antibiotics on the developing infant gut microbiome and resistome: a randomized trial" published on Nat Commun focused on neonates who received antibiotics within one week of birth.
    , analyzed their changes in gut microbiome and antimicrobial resistance genes

    .
    The study helps to identify antibiotic regimens with minimal impact on microecology and antimicrobial resistance genes

    .

      In the present study, 147 infants born at ≥36 weeks requiring broad-spectrum antibiotics for sEONS in the first week of life were randomized to receive three commonly used intravenous antibiotic combinations, namely penicillin + gentamicin, Co-clavulanate + gentamicin or amoxicillin + cefotaxime (ZEBRA study, trial registration NL4882)), the mean duration of antibiotic treatment was 48 hours
    .
    A control group of 80 non-antibiotic-treated infants from the healthy birth group (MUIS study, trial registration NL3821)

    .
    Rectal swabs and/or stool samples were collected before and after treatment, at 1, 4, and 12 months of age

    .
    The sample flora was characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing, 31 antimicrobial resistance genes were detected by targeted qPCR, and metagenomic sequencing was performed on a subset of samples for validation

    .
     

    The results showed that the entire gut microbial community composition and antimicrobial resistance genes were shifted after direct treatment (R2 = 9.
    5%, adjusted presumed value = 0.
    001 and R2 = 7.
    5%, adjusted presumed value = 0.
    001, respectively), and normalization resumed at 12 months of age (R2 = 1.
    1%, adjusted ps = 0.
    03 and R2 = 0.
    6%, adjusted ps = 0.
    23, respectively)

    .
    The study found that infants taking antibiotics had decreased abundance of bifidobacteria and increased abundance of Klebsiella and Enterococcus compared with controls

    .
    Amoxicillin + cefotaxime had the greatest effect on infant gut microbial community composition and resistance gene profiles, while penicillin + gentamicin had the least effect

    .
     

    Average relative abundance of gut microbes in infants  

    These data suggest that empirical use of antibiotics can cause adverse gut microbiological side effects (Bioon.
    com)

    .
     

    references:

    Reyman, M.
    , van Houten, MA, Watson, RL et al.
    Effects of early-life antibiotics on the developing infant gut microbiome and resistome: a randomized trial.
    Nat Commun 13, 893 (2022).
    https://doi.
    org/10.
    1038/s41467-022-28525-z

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