Li Dan (Shanghai Qiaomu Food Co.Abstract: Ice cream is a kind of frozen dairy products.
, Shanghai 201499)
, Shanghai 201499)
It is a solid cold food category.
It is loved by consumers because of its rich nutrition and excellent taste
Reasonable mixing formula and good processing conditions are the key elements of ice cream production, and emulsifiers play a very important role in it
This article briefly describes the specific application of food emulsifiers in the ice cream production process, in order to provide a reference for the development of ice cream
Keywords: food emulsifier; ice cream production; application
ice cream is mainly composed of skimmed milk, white sugar, stabilizer, milk fat, seasoning, water and fruit jam.
It is a semi-solid prepared by sterilizing and mixing with a large amount of air.
Or solid foam products, dairy additives are indispensable materials in the production of ice cream, directly related to the quality of ice cream 
Because oil and water are incompatible, they can only be mixed with each other under the influence of mechanical external force, but a stable emulsion cannot be formed.
If the applied external force is cancelled, it will quickly separate into the original two types of liquids in a short time [2 ]
To ensure that the uniformly mixed state of ice cream is continuously maintained during the production of ice cream, an emulsifier should be added 
This article explores the application of food emulsifiers in ice cream production
1 Application of emulsifiers in ice cream Ice
cream hardness, taste, cost, texture and other factors are all related to the ratio of raw material formulations.
Only by ensuring reasonable formulation design and paying attention to the use of additives can the quality be more stable 
A brief overview of the various ingredient formulas of ice cream mixes (see Table 1)
After adding emulsifiers, the surface tension of various raw materials decreases, water and oil can be mixed with each other into a complete turbid liquid, reducing air bubbles (small bubbles are easily mixed in and stored in the ice cream tissue in the frozen state), and the colloid is in a completely dispersed state and To maintain homogeneity, fat globules, emulsifiers, air sinks, and non-fat solids are combined to form a tissue (which contains various other particles), making the ice cream more smooth and delicious
The sugar and soluble salt in ice cream are in true solution state, protein, colloidal phosphate, stabilizer are in colloidal state, emulsifier and fat are in turbid state, but the use of emulsifier can play an emulsification effect, and promote fat globules when the material is frozen The cohesion of 
The amount of emulsifier and the fat content are proportional to each other.
The amount of emulsifier in the ice cream mixture accounts for about 2% of the total fat.
It can stabilize the emulsion of the ice cream mixture, prevent the formation of large ice crystals, and make the ice cream more structured.
It is loose and delicate.
If the amount is too large, it will affect the shape and texture of the ice cream
The use of emulsifiers in ice cream can maintain the stability of properties.
The fat globules become fine particles after the mixture is homogenized.
The emulsifier and fat are closely related to each other, allowing the fat to be completely dispersed in the ice cream mixture, and mechanically agitated during freezing and mixing.
, So that the whipping properties are improved
The use of emulsifier is conducive to the generation of bubbles.
Stir the air into the ice cream mixture during freezing.
The use of emulsifier can control the aeration and form foam during the coagulation, so that the expansion rate and foaming of the ice cream mixture are improved, and the volume becomes larger.
Emulsifiers used in ice cream production can protect the bubble film and improve product quality
The stability of ice cream bubbles is very strong, can prevent heat conduction, improve its heat resistance at room temperature, and maintain the inherent shape of the product
The ice cream contains more fine air bubbles, giving a very soft and soft taste
During the freezing process, the application of emulsifiers reduces the demulsification and precipitation of liquid fat in the fat globules, and plays an important role in fat agglomeration and coagulation.
When the fat agglomerates near the bubbles generated during whipping, it is fully mixed with air to obtain the desired Excessive amount
The application of emulsifiers in the ice cream freezing process can not only emulsify the two immiscible phases , and control the migration of fat globules
Because ice cream milk has a high protein content, when the fat crystallizes, the emulsifier will remove the protein at the water-fat interface, which is mainly caused by the decrease in interfacial tension
In this process, the emulsifier migrates to the surface of the fat particles, replacing the position of the protein, forming a network-like structure, maintaining the foaming and expansion rate of ice cream
The emulsifier can prevent the formation of large ice crystals, make the ice cream structure loose, fine and soft, and the emulsifier can also make the ice cream harder after it comes out of the cooler, which is more conducive to packaging
2 Types of emulsifiers commonly used in ice cream
Lecithin belongs to the category of natural emulsifiers, found in oil seeds and egg yolks
Most of the currently used lecithins are made from soybeans, so the lecithins are mainly soybean phospholipids, which have strong emulsifying, wetting, and dispersing functions
2 Sucrose fatty acid esters.
Sucrose fatty acid esters, also known as sucrose esters, are mainly made of sucrose and refined hydrogenated oil.
They are synthetic emulsifiers.
They are white or yellow-brown powders.
The HLB value ranges from 2 to 15, with high hydrophilicity and high It is lipophilic.
The properties are stable when the temperature is lower than 120 ℃, and it will decompose when it exceeds 145 ℃.
It will be decomposed by the action of acid, alkali and enzyme, and the hydrolysis will be faster at high temperature
The application of sucrose fatty acids in ice cream production can make bubbles larger, and have poor stability and heat resistance.
Therefore, they are mostly used with monoglycerides in a ratio of 1:1
3 Sorbitan fatty acid esters
are a kind of synthetic emulsifiers, and a series of non-ionic emulsifiers such as palmitate, palmitate and stearate are commonly used today
The number and type of sorbitan fatty acid esters have an effect on solubility.
They are compatible with water and oil.
Due to the increase in fatty acid chain length and the number of groups, it is more soluble with lipophilic substances
It can maintain good thermal stability at a temperature lower than 120 ℃, but if it exceeds 120 ℃, the caramelization formula will change, and two types of oil-water and water-oil emulsions will be formed.
Sorbitol The amount of anhydride fatty acid ester used in ice cream production is usually 0.
1% to 0.
2% of the mixture
4 Polyglycerol fatty acid ester
Polyglycerol fatty acid ester is abbreviated as polyolester.
It is a kind of high-efficiency emulsifier.
It is formed by the reaction of fatty acid and polyglycerol.
It has obvious color change, which can change from white to beige or brown.
It can be quickly in water after heating.
Disperse, dissolve with glycerin and show turbidity.
It is an oil-in-water emulsifier.
The use of polyglycerol ester in ice cream production can increase the expansion rate of the product, so that the ice cream has a better taste and better properties
Mono- and di -glycerin fatty acid esters Mono- and di-glycerin fatty acid esters, also known as monoglycerides and diglycerides, are made from hydrogenated oil and glycerin as raw materials.
They are a kind of food additive .
Ionic surfactants have been widely used in the fields of cosmetics, food and medicine
Diglycerol fatty acid esters are the products of glycerol esterification of two hydroxyl groups with fatty acids, and they have also been widely used in ice cream production
As an indispensable food additive in the production of ice cream, emulsifiers are directly related to the quality and taste of ice cream, and are a key link in ice cream production technology
In the process of rapid development of China's food industry, the types of food will become more and more abundant, and the application of emulsifiers in other food production will also be more extensive
In order to provide a reference for follow-up research to make the application of emulsifiers in the field of food production more comprehensive
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