Can the smuggling of pangolin, whose name has been removed from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and whose profits are 10-100 times of that of Africa to China, cool down
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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According to the pangolin report: smuggling to extinction, scales purchased in Nigeria as low as $5-10 per kilogram can be resold in China at a price of $1000, with a profit margin of more than 100 times< br / > on June 9, pangolin was finally removed from the list in the latest edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume I) in 2020Just four days ago, pangolin was upgraded to the first level of national wildlife protection< br / > but, "it's still a step late," Sophie, known as the "pangolin girl," said to eight o'clock Jianwenlast June 8th, the Chinese Biodiversity Conservation and green development foundation, which was founded by China, announced that the pangolin has been "functionally extinct" in Chinese mainland< br / > not only Chinese pangolins, but also eight species of pangolins in the world are endangeredA few years ago, someone exclaimed, "African pangolins are almost eaten up."< br / > the Chinese government has been cracking down on the smuggling of pangolinsHowever, due to the dual demand of food and medicine, the pangolin scales from Africa to China are 10-100 times more profitable, and China has become one of the most important countries to smuggle pangolins< br / > according to incomplete statistics, in 2019, the customs of many countries seized 123 tons of pangolin scales, about 0.5kg scales on one pangolinIn the domestic Chinese medicine market, pangolin scales can be sold to 10 yuan per gram" This is equivalent to 246000 pangolins, with a market value of 1.23 billion yuanThis does not include the part that could not be seized< br / > at the government level, pangolin has been "neglected" in the field of medicine, a year agoIn August last year, the state health insurance bureau and the Ministry of human resources and social security issued a new version of the national directory of drugs for basic medical insurance, work injury insurance and maternity insurance, which clearly stated that the Chinese herbal pieces of pangolin (vinegar pangolin and artillery pangolin) should not be included in the payment scope of the medical insurance fund< br / > according to the survey conducted by the green hair Council in 2016, 66 kinds of Chinese patent medicines containing pangolin ingredients produced by 209 pharmaceutical companies were sold on the market at that time, and there were also unknown quantities of Chinese herbal pieces sold in designated hospitals and pharmaciesWith pangolin removed from the Pharmacopoeia, how will the fate of these pharmaceutical companies and drugs change? < br / > < br / > The body is covered with tile like scales, which can curl up into a ball in case of enemies, and even resist the teeth of lions, tigers and leopards < br / > however, it's the armor that looks like "invulnerable", which makes it almost "exterminate" < br / > the scales of pangolin are regarded as precious Chinese medicinal materials The earliest record comes from the record of famous doctors written by Tao Hongjing of the Southern Dynasty, which records "slight cold, the main five evils are frightened, crying and grieving, burning them as ashes, treating ant impotence with wine or water and square inch dagger" But at that time, it was described as "inferior", which means "too toxic to take for a long time" < br / > in the Tang Dynasty, Zhen Quan recorded in the theory of medicinal properties: "there is a big poison Cure mountain malaria The sores burn " That is to say, it has increased the efficacy of treating "mountain malaria", but also emphasized the toxicity Since then, the medicinal value of pangolin has been continuously enriched In Li Shizhen's Compendium of Materia Medica, the effect of milk passing was clearly defined < br / > Pharmacopoeia of China is the most authoritative medical standard in China The record of pangolin before its name was removed: it can promote blood circulation and pass channels, reduce swelling and discharge pus It is used for the treatment of meridians, breast obstruction, rheumatism, apoplexy and paralysis In medicine, pangolin is mainly used for milk and some cancers In a report of < br / > bbc2017, a doctor's analysis was quoted, "the primary medical use of pangolin scales is to treat ant bites because they eat ants And because pangolins can drill holes, it's believed that they can open up congestion on you " < br / > the thinking mode and identification standard of modern medicine are different from those of traditional Chinese medicine Many Western doctors have pointed out that the scales of pangolin are only cuticular skin appendages, and there is no essential difference between its composition and human nail hair According to the determination, there was no significant difference in amino acid composition between pangolin scales and pig hoof < br / > Song Jinbo, a media man, said in an article: "a gentleman is innocent and bears the merits of his crime As Zhuangzi's fable shows, some animals have to pay the cost of their lives because they are 'useful' to humans The more useful they are, the more difficult it is to protect themselves However, pangolin is a natural disaster, which leads to its "usefulness" of extermination, all of which are structure and imagination < br / > however, some people think that it is not easy to draw such a conclusion, "there is no clinical trial evidence to support this, obviously, it is the words of each family, but it is certainly not appropriate to only look at the chemical composition All in all, it's hard to come to a conclusion " A pharmacist in a top three hospital told Jianwen at eight < br / > Wu Shibao, Professor of life science, South China Normal University, is the only Chinese mainland member from the World Conservation Union's Committee of species survival Committee Since 90s of last century, he has been studying pangolin "Ironically, I just started to study that the Chinese Pangolin has been commercially extinct." < br / > there are 8 species of pangolin, which is unique to China According to his recollection, in the 1960s and 1970s, when doing surveys in Guangdong, Yunnan and other places, some mountain pangolins sold for 2 yuan at a time, and a hunter could dig more than 10 in a winter These acquired pangolins are the main source of armour tablets used by pharmaceutical factories < br / > from the 1960s to 2004, the number of pangolins in China decreased by 88% - 94%, from common species to critically endangered species The results of the national census conducted by the State Forestry Administration around 1998 were about 64000 By 2008, the number of pangolins in China was between 25100 and 49450 In the past 10 years, the number of pangolins decreased by about 1 / 2, which has a very big threat of extinction < br / > it is estimated that the annual demand for pangolins in China is about 200000, of which the proportion of food and medicine is basically 1:1 "When the pangolin is finished, it will be smuggled from Southeast Asia, and the pangolin from Southeast Asia will be eaten up..." In recent years, Wu Shibao has gone to Luofu Mountain, Nankun mountain and other protected areas in Guangdong Province, and no pangolin cave has been seen In the investigation of Hunan Provincial Forestry Department in the early years, the number of pangolins was "zero" < br / > < br / > < br / / > Wu Shibao pointed out that more than 95% of pangolins consumed in China every year come from abroad Most of them are illegal In 2000, China banned the import of pangolins from Southeast Asia, while the import of African pangolins has not been opened because of quarantine problems In order to strengthen the protection of pangolin, China stopped all activities of hunting pangolin in the wild in 2007 From January 2017, the international trade of pangolin was banned From October 2018, China stopped the commercial import of pangolin and its products However, smuggling is not completely eliminated < br / > according to the report issued by the international wildlife trade research organization (traffic) in 2016, from 2007 to 2016 (as of August 18), China's law enforcement authorities (including the mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) seized 209 cases involving pangolin From 2007 to 2011, there were 55 cases in total, with an average of 11 cases per year; from 2012 to 2016, there were 154 cases, with an average of 30.8 cases per year, nearly three times of the previous five years The increase of the number of cases, on the one hand, may be due to the increase of the illegal trade and market demand of pangolin, on the other hand, to the substantial improvement of our law enforcement capacity, as well as the increase of the transparency of case reports and media attention < br / > < br / > < br / > the global environmental reporting alliance, established in early 2019, selected pangolin trade as the first in-depth investigation object 14 media and more than 30 journalists from Asia and Africa participated in the report and conducted dozens of interviews On September 25, 2019, pangolin report: Smuggling to extinction was released According to the report, pangolin scales now outnumber ivory in shipments that include both pangolin and ivory < br / > the report shows that the profit margin of pangolin smuggling is amazing Traders contacted in the survey said that scales purchased in Nigeria as low as $5-10 per kilogram can be resold in China at a price of $1000, with a profit margin of more than 100 times < br / > In December 2016, Shanghai Customs seized 3 tons of pangolin scales According to Zhu, the suspect, they purchased these pangolin scales locally in Africa at a price of 300 to 500 yuan per kilogram After smuggling into China, the price of these scales increased tenfold < br / > in China, pangolin medicine is legal < br / > in November 2007, the State Forestry Administration, the Ministry of health, the State Administration for Industry and commerce, the State Food and Drug Administration and the State Administration of traditional Chinese medicine jointly issued the notice on strengthening the protection of Saiga antelope, pangolin and rare snake resources and regulating the administration of their products into medicine (hereinafter referred to as the "notice"), It is required that a tablet be limited to clinical use and production of Chinese patent medicine in designated hospitals, and not be sold in retail outside designated hospitals Then, the State Forestry Administration organized experts to review and demonstrate that the total annual consumption of pangolin tablet is controlled at about 25000kg, 70% of a tablet is used as decoction piece, 30% of a tablet is made into Chinese patent medicine, and the list of more than 700 designated hospitals is published < br / > according to the data from 2008 to 2015, the total consumption control is about 186 tons, with an average annual consumption of about 26.6 tons, slightly higher than expected < br / > however, the actual investigation found that the sales of decoction pieces are not limited to the designated hospitals < br / > in the 2016 survey of trafic, a total of 74 wholesalers of animal medicinal materials, 67 Chinese pharmacies and 13 handicraft stores were recorded to have sold nail carving or gold charms Compared with the survey results of trafic ten years ago, the proportion of a-tablets sold in traditional Chinese medicine shops decreased from 82% in 2006 / 2007 to 62% at present, but the proportion of a-tablets sold in the wholesale market of traditional Chinese medicine increased from 12.5% to 35% The illegal sale of a-tablets is still more serious in the traditional Chinese medicine market in China However, consumption of pangolin has improved, with only two (2%) restaurants explicitly informing of pangolin meat supply, compared with nine (18%) found in a survey a decade ago < br / > < br / > < br / / > according to the survey, the average price of a tablet per kilogram in the wholesale market of traditional Chinese medicine is 3565 ± 920 yuan for cooked tablet and 3349 ± 1038 yuan for raw tablet Only cooked tablets are sold in traditional Chinese medicine stores, the price is 6576 ± 2025 yuan per kilogram, which is significantly higher than the wholesale market of traditional Chinese medicine Compared with the survey results of trafic in 2006 / 2007 (900 yuan / kg in the wholesale market of traditional Chinese medicine and 1082 yuan / kg in the traditional Chinese medicine store), the price of tablet a in the wholesale and retail market is nearly four times and six times that of ten years ago, respectively < br / > now four years later, as Sophie just introduced, a tablet can be sold to 10 yuan per gram, that is 10000 yuan per kilogram < br / > in 2016, 66 Chinese patent medicines with pangolin ingredients produced by 209 pharmaceutical companies were found to be on the market For example, sunflower pharmaceutical and other companies produce raw milk and Tongrentang and other companies produce Liyanling tablets < br / > < br / > < br / / > according to the past data, the average annual controlled consumption of nail tablet is 26.6 tons, which is a market value of 266 million yuan calculated at 10000 yuan / kg, but this figure does not include the drugstore sales and black market transactions outside the designated hospitals, nor the value-added space of Chinese patent medicine < br / > there are many opponents of using pangolin as medicine, among which the most famous one should be entertainment star angelababy In the BBC Documentary "pangolin: the most killed animals", Maria dikeman, an environmentalist, found angelababy and launched a public service announcement In the film, the female star hugged a small pangolin, saying tenderly: "every baby has only one mother, including the pangolin baby In the past decade, nearly one million pangolins have been killed, and the armour and meat have been illegally used It is not illegal
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