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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Endocrine System > Cardiovasc Diabetol: Fat and muscle mass are associated with sex of cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Cardiovasc Diabetol: Fat and muscle mass are associated with sex of cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    • Last Update: 2022-05-13
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Background: In the United States, between 2017 and 2018, 43.
    3% of middle-aged (40-59) women and 46.
    4% of middle-aged men were obese, and up to 30% of community-dwelling women and men over age 50 were obese Have osteoporosis, an age-related loss of muscle mass

    .
    The coexistence of obesity and osteoporosis is often referred to as osteoporosis

    .
    Figures from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that 33.
    5% of women and 12.
    6% of men over the age of 60 suffer from fibrous obesity

    .
    Type 2 diabetes is also prevalent among U.
    S.
    adults, affecting 12.
    0% of women and 14.
    0% of men

    .
    Excessive body fat, especially when distributed in the abdomen, in patients with type 2 diabetes can lead to the accumulation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, Depression and poor health-related quality of life

    .
    While maintaining high muscle mass is critical to counteract the negative effects of high fat mass on cardiovascular disease risk factors, accelerated muscle mass loss occurs in adults with type 2 diabetes
    .
    Low muscle mass exacerbates insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin (A1C), dyslipidemia, hypertension, chronic renal failure, depression, and HR-QOL, and predicts a higher 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease
    .
    Cardiovascular disease accounts for 65% of deaths in type 2 diabetes; diabetes affects more women than men on the risk of death from cardiovascular disease

    .
    Although high fat mass and low muscle mass synergistically increase the risk of cumulative cardiovascular events (eg, stroke, myocardial infarction, and death) in type 2 diabetes, how fat mass and muscle mass simultaneously influence cardiovascular disease risk factors remains unclear
    .

    Background: In the United States, between 2017 and 2018, 43.
    3% of middle-aged (40-59) women and 46.
    4% of middle-aged men were obese, and up to 30% of community-dwelling women and men over age 50 were obese Have osteoporosis, an age-related loss of muscle mass

    .
    The coexistence of obesity and osteoporosis is often referred to as osteoporosis

    .
    Figures from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that 33.
    5% of women and 12.
    6% of men over the age of 60 suffer from fibrous obesity

    .
    Type 2 diabetes is also prevalent among U.
    S.
    adults, affecting 12.
    0% of women and 14.
    0% of men

    .
    Excessive body fat, especially when distributed in the abdomen, in patients with type 2 diabetes can lead to the accumulation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, Depression and poor health-related quality of life

    .
    While maintaining high muscle mass is critical to counteract the negative effects of high fat mass on cardiovascular disease risk factors, accelerated muscle mass loss occurs in adults with type 2 diabetes
    .
    Low muscle mass exacerbates insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin (A1C), dyslipidemia, hypertension, chronic renal failure, depression, and HR-QOL, and predicts a higher 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease
    .
    Cardiovascular disease accounts for 65% of deaths in type 2 diabetes; diabetes affects more women than men on the risk of death from cardiovascular disease

    .
    Although high fat mass and low muscle mass synergistically increase the risk of cumulative cardiovascular events (eg, stroke, myocardial infarction, and death) in type 2 diabetes, how fat mass and muscle mass simultaneously influence cardiovascular disease risk factors remains unclear
    .
    In the U.
    S.
    , between 2017 and 2018, 43.
    3% of middle-aged (40-59) women and 46.
    4% of middle-aged men were obese, and a whopping 30% of community-dwelling women and men over age 50 were obese osteoporosis, an age-related loss of muscle mass

    .
    The coexistence of obesity and osteoporosis is often referred to as osteoporosis

    .
    Figures from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that 33.
    5% of women and 12.
    6% of men over the age of 60 suffer from fibrous obesity

    .
    Type 2 diabetes is also prevalent among U.
    S.
    adults, affecting 12.
    0% of women and 14.
    0% of men

    .
    Excessive body fat, especially when distributed in the abdomen, in patients with type 2 diabetes can lead to the accumulation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, Depression and poor health-related quality of life

    .
    Low muscle mass exacerbates insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin (A1C), dyslipidemia, hypertension, chronic renal failure, depression, and HR-QOL, and predicts a higher 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease
    .
    Cardiovascular disease accounts for 65% of deaths in type 2 diabetes; diabetes affects more women than men on the risk of death from cardiovascular disease

    .

    Fat mass, fat distribution, and muscle mass differed between genders
    .
    Men generally have lower fat mass than women, but higher insulin resistance, blood sugar, and lipid concentrations, in part due to a greater distribution of abdominal fat

    .
    Compared with men, absolute muscle mass and weight-adjusted muscle mass are generally lower in women, and women with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for loss of muscle mass

    .
    Life>
    .
    However, previous studies have shown that co-occurrence of high fat and low muscle mass slows the improvement of some cardiovascular disease risk factors after exercise training, such as insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides in adults with type 2 diabetes
    .
    It is unclear whether the effect of fat mass and muscle mass on life>
    .
    Multiple studies have shown that high fat mass and low muscle mass independently increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

    .
    However, little is known about the effect of the interaction between high fat mass and low muscle mass on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes

    .

    Fat mass, fat distribution, and muscle mass differed between genders
    .
    Men generally have lower fat mass than women, but higher insulin resistance, blood sugar, and lipid concentrations, in part due to a greater distribution of abdominal fat

    .
    Compared with men, absolute muscle mass and weight-adjusted muscle mass are generally lower in women, and women with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for loss of muscle mass

    .
    Life>
    .
    However, previous studies have shown that co-occurrence of high fat and low muscle mass slows the improvement of some cardiovascular disease risk factors after exercise training, such as insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides in adults with type 2 diabetes
    .
    It is unclear whether the effect of fat mass and muscle mass on life>
    .
    Multiple studies have shown that high fat mass and low muscle mass independently increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

    .
    However, little is known about the effect of the interaction between high fat mass and low muscle mass on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes

    .
    Fat mass, fat distribution, and muscle mass differed between genders
    .
    Men generally have lower fat mass than women, but higher insulin resistance, blood sugar, and lipid concentrations, in part due to a greater distribution of abdominal fat

    .
    Compared with men, absolute muscle mass and weight-adjusted muscle mass are generally lower in women, and women with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for loss of muscle mass

    .
    Life>
    .

    OBJECTIVE: Given gender differences in body composition and cardiovascular disease mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes, a gender survey of the relationship between body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors is warranted to understand how women's and men's unique body composition contributes to of cardiovascular disease
    .
    The primary objective of this study was to assess how fat mass and muscle mass predict cardiovascular risk factors in both women and men with type 2 diabetes

    .
    The second objective was to investigate how fat mass and muscle mass simultaneously predict changes in cardiovascular risk factors following life>
    .
    We hypothesized that, regardless of gender, high fat mass and low muscle mass would be synergistically associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk factor improvement and less cardiovascular disease risk factor improvement

    .

    OBJECTIVE: Given gender differences in body composition and cardiovascular disease mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes, a gender survey of the relationship between body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors is warranted to understand how women's and men's unique body composition contributes to of cardiovascular disease
    .
    The primary objective of this study was to assess how fat mass and muscle mass predict cardiovascular risk factors in both women and men with type 2 diabetes

    .
    The second objective was to investigate how fat mass and muscle mass simultaneously predict changes in cardiovascular risk factors following life>
    .
    We hypothesized that, regardless of gender, high fat mass and low muscle mass would be synergistically associated with greater cardiovascular disease risk factor improvement and less cardiovascular disease risk factor improvement

    .

    Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure fat mass index (FMI) and adnexal muscle mass index (ASMI).
    The subjects were divided into two groups: high fat and low fat and high muscle and low muscle

    .
    Cardiovascular risk factors (ie, hemoglobin A1C [A1C]; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides ; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness, depression, and health-related quality of life [HR-QOL]) were subjected to a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA: high ASMI versus low FMI versus high ASMI versus low ASMI)

    .

    Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure fat mass index (FMI) and adnexal muscle mass index (ASMI).
    The subjects were divided into two groups: high fat and low fat and high muscle and low muscle

    .
    Cardiovascular risk factors (ie, hemoglobin A1C [A1C]; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides ; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness, depression, and health-related quality of life [HR-QOL]) were subjected to a two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA: high ASMI versus low FMI versus high ASMI versus low ASMI)

    .

    Results: Data from 1369 participants (62.
    7% female) who completed baseline DXA were analyzed

    .
    In women, the interaction of fat mass and muscle mass at baseline had an effect on A1C (p=0.
    016)

    .
    Post-analysis showed that A1C in the low fasting glycemic index group was significantly higher than that in the high fasting glycemic index group (60.
    3±14.
    1vs.
    55.
    5±13.
    5mmolmol, p=0.
    023)

    .
    There was no significant difference between the high insulin resistance index group and the low insulin resistance index group (56.
    4±12.
    5vs.
    56.
    5±12.
    8mmol/mol, P=0.
    610)

    .
    In men, only high FMI was associated with higher A1C compared with low FMI at baseline (57.
    1±14.
    4 vs.
    54.
    2±12.
    0 mmol.
    mol, p=0.
    008)

    .
    There was a significant fat mass and muscle mass interaction for changes in the psychological components of HR-QOL in men after ILI

    .

    Results: Data from 1369 participants (62.
    7% female) who completed baseline DXA were analyzed

    .
    In women, the interaction of fat mass and muscle mass at baseline had an effect on A1C (p=0.
    016)

    .
    Post-analysis showed that A1C in the low fasting glycemic index group was significantly higher than that in the high fasting glycemic index group (60.
    3±14.
    1vs.
    55.
    5±13.
    5mmolmol, p=0.
    023)

    .
    There was no significant difference between the high insulin resistance index group and the low insulin resistance index group (56.
    4±12.
    5vs.
    56.
    5±12.
    8mmol/mol, P=0.
    610)

    .
    In men, only high FMI was associated with higher A1C compared with low FMI at baseline (57.
    1±14.
    4 vs.
    54.
    2±12.
    0 mmol.
    mol, p=0.
    008)

    .
    There was a significant fat mass and muscle mass interaction for changes in the psychological components of HR-QOL in men after ILI

    .

    Figure 1.
    Female (left) and male (right) glycated hemoglobin A1C concentrations at baseline

    .
    In females, there was a significant FMI-by-ASMI interaction (p=0.
    016)

    .
    Post-analysis showed that in the high fasting glycemic index group, there was no significant difference between the high ASMI group and the low ASMI group (p=0.
    610), while in the low fasting glycemic index group, compared with the high ASMI group, the low ASMI group had no significant difference (p=0.
    610).
    A1C was significantly increased (p=0.
    023)

    .
    Among men, the high BMI group had higher glycated hemoglobin levels than the low BMI group (p=0.
    008)

    .

    Figure 1.
    Female (left) and male (right) glycated hemoglobin A1C concentrations at baseline

    .
    In females, there was a significant FMI-by-ASMI interaction (p=0.
    016)

    .
    Post-analysis showed that in the high fasting glycemic index group, there was no significant difference between the high ASMI group and the low ASMI group (p=0.
    610), while in the low fasting glycemic index group, compared with the high ASMI group, the low ASMI group had no significant difference (p=0.
    610).
    A1C was significantly increased (p=0.
    023)

    .
    Among men, the high BMI group had higher glycated hemoglobin levels than the low BMI group (p=0.
    008)

    .

    Table 1 Changes in risk factors of cardiovascular disease in women after intensive life>

    Table 1 Changes in risk factors of cardiovascular disease in women after intensive life>

    Table 2 Changes in risk factors of cardiovascular disease in men after intensive life>

    Table 2 Changes in risk factors of cardiovascular disease in men after intensive life>

    Figure 2 Changes in total psychological component score (MCS) after intensive life>
    .
    Among women, there were no differences in MCS score changes associated with different body composition phenotypes

    .
    In men, sleep apnea syndrome interacted with changes in MCS score (p=0.
    003)

    .
    Post hoc analysis showed that MCS scores increased more in the high ASMI group compared with the low ASMI group

    .
    In the low FMI group, the MCS score increased more in the low ASMI group compared to the high ASMI group

    .

    Figure 2 Changes in total psychological component score (MCS) after intensive life>
    .
    Among women, there were no differences in MCS score changes associated with different body composition phenotypes

    .
    In men, sleep apnea syndrome interacted with changes in MCS score (p=0.
    003)

    .
    Post hoc analysis showed that MCS scores increased more in the high ASMI group compared with the low ASMI group

    .
    In the low FMI group, the MCS score increased more in the low ASMI group compared to the high ASMI group

    .

    CONCLUSIONS: Given that A1C predicts future cardiovascular disease, strategies to lower A1C may be particularly important in women with type 2 diabetes who are low in fat and muscle mass
    .
    Our results underscore the role of fat mass and muscle mass in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex-specificity

    .

    CONCLUSIONS: Given that A1C predicts future cardiovascular disease, strategies to lower A1C may be particularly important in women with type 2 diabetes who are low in fat and muscle mass
    .
    Our results underscore the role of fat mass and muscle mass in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex-specificity

    .
    Given that A1C can predict future cardiovascular disease, strategies to reduce A1C may be especially important for women with type 2 diabetes who are low in fat and muscle mass
    .
    Our results underscore the role of fat mass and muscle mass in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex-specificity

    .

    Original source: Terada T, Reed JL, Vidal-Almela S, et al.
    Sex-specific associations of fat mass and muscle mass with cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes living with overweight and obesity: secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD trial.
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 2022 Mar 15;21(1)

    Original source: Terada T, Reed JL, Vidal-Almela S, et al.
    Sex-specific associations of fat mass and muscle mass with cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes living with overweight and obesity: secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD trial.
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 2022 Mar 15;21(1)
    Sex-specific associations of fat mass and muscle mass with cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes living with overweight and obesity: secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD trial.


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