Cell Host and Microbe: Emotions take the guts! Face with smile, intestines do SPA!
Last Update: 2020-06-16
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Introduction: Serotonin, also known as serotonin (5-HT), is an important neurotransmitter that transmits signals between neurons in the brain and participates in regulating moodsA new study by scientists at Southwest Medical Center in Utah, USA, published in the sub-journal Cell, hosts and microbes, suggests that serotonin may reduce the ability of certain intestinal pathogens to cause deadly infections and may provide a new way to combat infectionsThe role of serotonin Imagines that each nerve cell is a computer, and that communication between the computer and the computer can be communicated via cable, or bluetoothHow does nerve cells communicate with them? The chemical that acts as a messenger between nerve cells and nerve cells is a neurotransmitterThere are at least 30 known neurotransmitters, the most famous being seven: dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA and endorphinsCompared with dopamine, serotonin is not so famous, in fact, from the perspective of ordinary readers, the role of serotonin is more popularDopamine The vast majority of people do not seek the kind of happiness that is born without life, but want to break free from everyday negative emotions and want to leave the unhappy stateIn other words, have autonomy over your emotionsSerotonin is the key word for "regulating mood"It can be said that, although serotonin does not produce happiness itself, but it controls the floodgates of whether or not to feel happyMost of the most common antidepressants on the market are on serotonin, with the goal of maintaining and increasing serotonin levels in the brainSerotonin affects gut bacteria Although most studies of serotonin have focused on its effects on the brain, about 90 percent of this neurotransmitter is produced in the gastrointestinal tractMillions of bacteria live in the human body, and most of these gut bacteria are beneficial, but pathogens can also settle in the gastrointestinal tract, causing serious and potentially fatal infectionsBecause gut bacteria are severely affected by the surrounding environment, it is critical whether the serotonin produced in the gut affects the toxicity of pathogenic bacteria that infect the gastrointestinal tractThe researchers chose Ecoli O157, a intestinal hemorrhagic E coli, one of the causes of food poisoning The team cultured the disease-causing bacteria in a laboratory dish and then exposed them to serotonin Gene expression tests have shown that serotonin significantly reduces the expression of a group of genes that cause infection sesame in these bacteria Other experiments using human cells have shown that if these bacteria are exposed to serotonin, they no longer cause infection-related lesions in the cells Serotonin affects the toxicity of live hosts, and the researchers studied how serotonin affects the toxicity of live hosts The researchers used mice to study how serotonin alters the ability of serotonin to infect and cause disease in mice with Bacillus Citrate, a type of gut bacteria commonly used as a human E coli analogue These mice were genetically modified to produce too much or insufficient serotonin in their gastrointestinal tract Those who over-produce this neurotransmitter are less likely to be killed by bacillus citrate in mice after being exposed to the bacteria Treating mice with fluoxetine (sold under the commercial name Prozac) to increase serotonin levels to prevent them from getting sick from exposure to Bacillus citrate in mice However, mice with insufficient serotonin production became more sick and even died after being exposed to bacteria Further experiments identified serotonin receptors, a protein called CpxA, on the surfaces of E coli and Bacillus Citrate Because many types of gut bacteria also contain CpxA, serotonin can have a wide spread ingenuity for the health of gut bacteria In the future, researchers plan to study the feasibility of controlling serotonin levels as a way to combat bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal tract Currently, few antibiotics are available that are effective against E coli O157 Some antibiotics can actually worsen the infection, causing bacteria to release more harmful toxins Treating bacterial infections is difficult, not to mention in the gut If the drug can be reused, it may provide new weapons against these challenging infections Ways to improve serotonin activity: (1) sunbathing (2) rhythmic movement (3) Chewthe the body can only synthesize the secretion of serotonin in the morning, so only grasp the morning, especially in the morning time, can be full of energy throughout the day If you miss the best time for serotonin secretion, the person has no spirit for a day Early to sleep, serotonin began to synthesize, but the content is still very low, need follow-up measures A lot of self-disciplined people get up in the morning and go for a run, while sunbathing and rhythmic exercise, but most people can't do it Suggestion: Breakfast must eat, a little more, slowly chew, by the way to think about today's plan Then walk to school, work, running is more tired, low blood sugar in the morning and sweating, not suitable for everyone, but walking such a relaxed exercise can be a good stimulation of serotonin production, as well as physical and mental release
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