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    Home > Biochemistry News > Biotechnology News > "Cell" important breakthrough!

    "Cell" important breakthrough!

    • Last Update: 2022-05-22
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    The microbes in our bodies affect physiological functions all the time.
    There is increasing evidence that microbes, including gut bacteria, regulate our physiological behavior in many ways, and can even transmit specific signals to the brain through the gastrointestinal vagus nerve

    .
    In the field of oncology, microorganisms are also one of the objects that scientists focus on

    .

    What most current studies have found is that microbes exist to regulate cancer susceptibility and tumor progression
    .
    They usually do not act directly, but affect tumorigenesis by affecting several metabolic and immune system signaling pathways, and generally in adjacent tumor tissue

    .

    With the development of sequencing technology, some scientists in Israel and the United States have shown that microbes not only indirectly affect tumors, but are more likely to be part of tumors
    .
    Today, Cai Shang's research group from the School of Life Sciences of West Lake University published an article in "Cell", which not only reconfirmed the fact that bacteria exist in tumors, but also proved for the first time that unique intracellular bacteria in breast cancer play a key role in tumor metastasis and colonization

    .

    ▲Intracellular bacteria of tumors can help them metastasize (Image source: Reference [2])

    In the new study, Dr.
    Cai Shang and colleagues created a mouse model of breast cancer, the cancerous tissue filled with bacteria, somewhat similar to what is observed in human breast cancer

    .
    Intuitively, the number of bacteria in breast cancer tissue is about 10 times that in normal breast tissue

    .

    Even more surprising, many of these bacteria colonized the cytosol of cancer cells, the interior of the cell
    .
    Bacteria within these cancer cells are even alive and gradually die in a cell-permeable environment of antibiotics

    .

    ▲Antibiotic clearance experiments have shown that tumor flora is crucial for tumor metastasis (Image source: Reference [2])

    They observed that when cancer cells roamed the circulatory system, the bacteria traveled with them throughout the body
    .
    These bacteria appear to regulate the cell's actin network and help cancer cells cope with mechanical stress during migration, increasing survival

    .

    In research tests, the bacteria in the cancer cells appeared to specifically help the cancer cells to metastasize, while having little effect on the growth of in situ tumors
    .
    By injecting a combination of antibiotics into the tail vein of mice, they attempted to specifically clear the tumor flora

    .
    When the tumor flora was eliminated, the size of the tumor itself did not shrink, but lung metastases were significantly reduced, indicating that these bacteria are critical to tumor metastasis

    .

    ▲ Tumor cells carry bacteria to distant organs and promote metastasis (Image source: Reference [2])

    The study managed to collect tumor microbiota in peripheral blood.
    When these bacteria were infused back into tumor mice, the tumor growth process in situ had little effect, but the level of tumor metastasis began to increase significantly, even in tumors that rarely metastasized.
    Types will also start to shift a lot

    .

    And one of the most important things bacteria do in metastasis is to help cancer cells resist mechanical stress.
    Normally, cancer cells move with the blood and are easily affected by a mechanical force called fluid shear stress.
    death

    .
    But bacteria can remodel the cytoskeleton, making it more resistant to fluid stress, making it easier for tumors to metastasize

    .

    This "symbiotic" relationship is really amazing.
    It seems that the bacteria host in the tumor and then help the tumor to metastasize

    .
    Dr.
    Cai Shang, the corresponding author of the study, told us that it is still unclear why bacteria are enriched in tumors and the source of bacteria, which may be related to the tumor's immunosuppressive environment, but may also involve more complex mechanisms, such as tumor abiotic environment, metabolic environment,

    etc.

    Although studies have confirmed that intracellular bacteria play an important role in cancer metastasis, the research team does not rule out the possibility that these bacteria influence the progression of cancer in situ
    .

    We may be more concerned about whether this research can help us resist and treat tumors? Dr.
    Cai Shang pointed out that some studies have suggested that the flora information in blood can help to diagnose the occurrence of tumors, and the use of blood flora to determine cancer metastasis is a very worthwhile direction to explore in the future

    .

    Note: The original text has been deleted

    References:

    [1] Evidence in mice that bacteria in tumors help cancer cells metastasize.
    Retrieved Apr 7th, 2022 from https:// Aikun Fu , B.
    et al.
    Tumor-resident intracellular microbiota promotes metastatic colonization in breast cancer.
    Cell (2022), DOI: 10.
    1016/j.
    cell.
    2022.
    02.
    027

    [3] Nejman, D.
    et al.
    The human tumor microbiome is composed of tumor type-specific intracellular bacteria.
    Science 368, 973-980, doi:10.
    1126/science.
    aay9189 (2020).

    [4] Riquelme, E.
    et al.
    Tumor Microbiome Diversity and Composition Influence Pancreatic Cancer Outcomes.
    Cell 178, 795-806 e712, doi:10.
    1016/j.
    cell.
    2019.
    07.
    008 (2019).

    [5] Jin, C.
    et al.
    Commensal Microbiota Promote Lung Cancer Development via gammadelta T Cells.
    Cell 176, 998-1013 e1016, doi:10.
    1016/j.
    cell.
    2018.
    12.
    040 (2019).

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