December 21, 2020 // -- In a recent study published in the international journal Cell entitled "Ticks resist skin commensals with immune factor of bacterial origin", scientists from the University of California and other institutions found that Lyme ticks may produce antibiotics to protect them from human skin bacteria.
Ticks live a very dangerous life, spending most of their time searching for hosts in different habitats and seasons, and are closely linked to reptiles, birds, or mammals such as humans, and why is it that, despite being notorious for spreading the Burch helix that causes Lyme disease, its own immune system protects it from pathogens? In this study, researchers answered this question by finding that ticks may be able to build special blood-sucking machines, that their immune systems are tailored to this unique way of life, and that ticks' defense strategies are carried out simultaneously outside the body, and that they may be able to kill resident microorganisms in host bodies when they feed on their hosts.
In the absence of special gene protection, ticks are vulnerable to staphylococcus infection (the most common type of symbic bacteria in host bodies), which "carpet" the surface of the host skin but are generally harmless to the host.
Photo Source: Matt Pinski researcher Chou says this is the first time that a natural pathogen of a tick has been identified and a molecular mechanism has been established to infect ticks, which transmit many microorganisms to humans, livestock and other animals, more than any known arthropod, but their own vulnerabilities are exposed. the gene called dae2 in
ticks originally evolved in bacteria and encodes proteins that act as a preparation against other bacterial infections; as early as hundreds of millions of years ago, when the ancestors of ticks began feeding on blood, they stole the dae2 gene from the host body and made it part of their genome.
dae2 gene represents a case of so-called gene transfer from bacterial levels to animals, which occurred during the evolution of blood-based food, but it may not be a coincidence.
'We've been wondering why ticks feed on blood, which not only takes a lot of energy to process into useful food, but also bites and adheres to animals much larger than them, which seems like a very dangerous exercise, but if there is a strong, dae2-enhanced immune system, ticks may be able to develop, expand and replenish their bloody ecological position,' the researchers said.
When researchers began studying the dae2 gene in shoulder-protruding ticks, a parasite in deer, they thought that the tick's acquisition of the gene might protect them from the effects of bacteria that live on the ticks(Burch's helix).
researchers have tried several experiments to find the molecular mechanism by which the gene inhibits Burch's dredging helix to affect ticks.
researcher Beth M. Hayes said it didn't seem to make much sense for ticks to get the immune effector to kill the bacteria that live in their bodies, and then they came up with the idea that dae2 might protect the ticks from staphylococcus bacteria in the host body, and they found that when the Dae2 protein was introduced into the culture that cultures that culture staphylococcus, the cultured fluid was brightened, and they may have found a new direction.
Then the researchers conducted a series of experiments, first comparing the dae gene from a range of tick species with the tate gene of the bacteria they originally derived, and by comparing the structure of high-resolution proteins, the researchers used computer models of these proteins to compare their shape and direction of contact with molecules in the walls of bacterial cells.
they then tested the protein's resistance to actual molecules coming from the walls of bacterial cells and found that the Dae2 protein rapidly degrades material from common skin bacteria, but Tae2 does not.
addition, Dae2 can kill a variety of bacteria, especially three very common bacteria (symbic bacteria in human skin).
When researchers used RNA interference techniques to remove the effects of the Dae2 gene from a portion of the mouse body, they found that staphylococcus levels were higher than those of ticks carrying functional proteins, which were also able to maintain a smaller body shape and gain less weight than those carrying Dae2.
Finally, researcher Chou says this is a new way of thinking about how ticks interact with microbes, which carry diseases in humans and animals around the world, and whose symbrosis is our pathogen, and our symbrosis is its pathogen.
() References: Beth M. Hayes, Atanas D. Radkov, Fauna Yarza, et al. Ticks Resist Skin Commensals with Immune Factor of Bacterial Origin, Cell (2020) doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.042【2】Lyme disease ticks produce antibiotic that protects them from human skin bacteriaby University of California, San Francisco。