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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Digestive System Information > Cell Metab | Chen Lili/He Zhengxiang, etc. Reveal the Harmfulness of Food Coloring on the Pathogenesis of Enteritis

    Cell Metab | Chen Lili/He Zhengxiang, etc. Reveal the Harmfulness of Food Coloring on the Pathogenesis of Enteritis

    • Last Update: 2021-05-21
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Responsible Editor | Xi Allure Red and Sunset Yellow are a class of artificial chemically synthesized azo dyes.

    As an artificial color, it has the widest application in food, beverage and cosmetics.

    As early as 2007, the annual production of Allure Red alone in the United States reached 2.
    3 million kilograms.

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic non-specific intestinal inflammatory disease, which is a comprehensive result of the interaction of various factors such as susceptibility genes, intestinal microbes, and environmental factors.

    The global incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing year by year, which may be related to the obvious changes in people's eating habits in the past few decades (especially the use of food additives in processed foods).

    However, the effect of chemically synthesized artificial pigments on inflammatory bowel disease is unknown.

    On May 13, 2021, Cell Metabolism published online the latest research progress of the Institute of Precision Immunology at Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York-Food colorants metabolized by commensal bacteria promote colitis in mice with dysregulated expression of interleukin-23.

    The study revealed the influence of azo chemically synthesized food pigments such as Allure Red (Red 40) and Sunset Yellow (Yellow 6) on the occurrence and pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation.
    Among them, the cytokine interleukin 23 mediates the pathogenicity.
    Production of food color-specific CD4+ T cells.

    The cytokine interleukin 23 (IL-23) is a pro-inflammatory molecule.

    A large amount of data shows that the IL-23 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of human IBD.

    Professor Sergio A.
    Lira's research team has constructed a mouse strain (Rosa23; CX3CR1creET, R23FR for short) that can regulate IL-23 expression to study its role in the occurrence and development of enteritis.

    A paper published by the team in the journal Gastroenterology in 2018 showed that IL-23 overexpressed in single CX3CR1-positive dendritic cells and macrophages is not sufficient to induce the onset of enteritis in mice, but changes in combined food can induce severe enteritis , Implying that there may be other important factors that induce enteritis in the food.

    The team’s latest research shows that the food coloring Allure Red added to food is the main factor in inducing enteritis.

    At the same time, it was also found that the ingestion of overexpression of IL-23 combined with sunset yellow can also induce severe enteritis.

    It is suggested that the intake of Allure Red and Sunset Yellow promotes the occurrence of enteritis in mice with high IL-23 expression.

    Human ulcerative enteritis is a periodic disease with typical onset, recovery and recurrence periods.

    The pathological characteristics and disease process of mouse enteritis are very similar to human ulcerative enteritis.

    With the cessation of food coloring, mice with enteritis will enter a recovery period.

    However, the recovered enteritis mice have produced memorable CD4+ T cells for artificial coloring, and when the same food coloring is ingested again, the enteritis recurrence will be induced quickly.

    More importantly, unlike food coloring, overexpression of IL-23 in convalescent mice did not induce recurrence of enteritis.

    At the same time, researchers found that gut microbes played an important role in this process.

    By means of sterile mice and single microorganism implantation into sterile mice, the researchers found that intestinal symbiotic bacteria such as B.
    ovatus and Enterococcus faecalis, E.
    faecalis, are involved in these azo dyes.
    Metabolism, resulting in pathogenic small molecule metabolites 1-amino-2-naphthol-6-sulphonate sodium salt (ANSA-Na).

    Therefore, this study found that chemically synthesized food pigments such as Allure Red and Sunset Yellow may be one of the important environmental factors for the recurrence of inflammatory bowel disease, and further emphasized the influence of the pro-inflammatory molecular effect of interleukin 23 on the pathogenesis of enteritis.

    In addition, this study also revealed that Allure Red and Sunset Yellow may act as haptens to regulate the body's immune response.

    Professor Sergio A.
    Lira and Assistant Professor Chen Lili of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York are the co-corresponding authors of this article.
    Clinical immunology lecturers Dr.
    Zhengxiang He and Assistant Professor Chen Lili are the co-first authors.

    In recent years, Dr.
    Lili Chen has received funding from the Research Fellowship Award and Career Development Award of the Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Foundation (CCFA).

    Original link: https://doi.
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