Original title: "Chinese Residents Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance" is new
Just entering 2021, the nutritional status of Chinese residents has ushered in gratifying improvement
"The physical development and nutritional deficiencies of Chinese residents continue to improve, and the urban-rural gap is gradually narrowing
Chinese urban and rural residents have sufficient dietary energy and three macronutrients of protein, fat, and carbohydrates, and their intake of high-quality protein continues to increase
" This is 2020 The latest data published in the "Report on Nutrition and Chronic Disease Status of Chinese Residents (2020)" (hereinafter referred to as the "Report") released on December 23
According to Li Bin, deputy director of the National Health Commission, from 2015 to 2019, the National Health Commission organized the China CDC, the National Cancer Center, and the National Cardiovascular Disease Center to carry out a new round of chronic disease and nutrition surveillance for Chinese residents, covering 31 countries across the country.
Each province (autonomous region, municipality) has a population of nearly 600 million, and the number of on-site surveys exceeds 600,000, which is representative of the national and provincial levels
The "Report" was compiled based on the monitoring results .
Chinese people generally "long high"
The "Report" shows that the average height of Chinese adults continues to grow.
The average heights of men and women aged 18 to 44 are 169.
7 cm and 158.
0 cm, respectively, an increase of 1.
2 cm and 0.
8 cm respectively compared with the results released in 2015
The height of boys and girls aged 6 to 17 increased in all age groups, with an average increase of 1.
6 cm and 1.
0 cm, respectively
The problem of undernutrition in children and adolescents has been continuously improved
The "Report" shows that the stunting rate of children under 6 years old has dropped to less than 7%, and the low weight rate has dropped to less than 5%, both of which have achieved the 2020 national planning goals
The problem of stunting in rural children in China has been fundamentally improved.
The stunting rate of children under 6 in rural areas has dropped from 11.
3% in 2015 to 5.
8%; the stunting rate of children and adolescents aged 6-17 has dropped from 4.
7% to 2.
Micronutrient deficiencies in the population have dropped significantly
The "Report" shows that taking anemia as an example, the monitoring results show that the anemia rate of residents aged 18 and above in China is 8.
7%, that of children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 is 6.
1%, and that of pregnant women is 13.
Compared with the published results, there is a significant decrease
The residents' health awareness has gradually increased
The "Report" shows that in recent years, residents' smoking rate, second-hand smoke exposure rate, and regular drinking rate have all declined
Family salt reduction has achieved results.
The average daily cooking salt per capita is 9.
3 grams, a decrease of 1.
2 grams compared with 2015
Residents are paying more and more attention to their own health, and the proportion of people who regularly measure health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids has increased significantly
The premature mortality rate of major chronic diseases has decreased
The level of premature mortality due to chronic diseases is an important indicator for evaluating the level of chronic disease prevention and control in a country and region.
The World Health Organization defines deaths between 30 and 70 years old as "premature deaths"
The "Report" shows that in 2019, the premature death rate of Chinese residents due to four types of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, was 16.
That is, everyone died between 30 and 70 years old.
The probability of the four types of major chronic diseases is 16.
5%, which is a decrease of 2 percentage points compared with 18.
5% in 2015, and a decrease of 10.
The 2020 national planning target is achieved ahead of schedule
At the same time, labor losses due to chronic diseases have been significantly reduced
In addition, the "Report" shows that Chinese residents still have some prominent nutritional problems, which are mainly reflected in the following aspects
The rate of overweight and obesity among residents continues to rise
The "Report" shows that the average weight of adult men and women are 69.
6 kg and 59 kg, respectively, an increase of 3.
4 kg and 1.
7 kg respectively compared with the results released in 2015
The overweight and obesity rates of residents of various age groups in urban and rural areas continue to rise.
The overweight and obesity rates of residents aged 18 and above are 34.
3% and 16.
4%, respectively; the overweight and obesity rates of children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 are 11.
1% and 7.
The overweight and obesity rates of the following children are 6.
8% and 3.
Unhealthy lifestyles of residents are widespread
The "Report" shows that the ratio of dietary fat to energy continues to rise, and the recommended upper limit of 30% has been exceeded for the first time in rural areas; the average daily cooking salt and oil consumption per household is still much higher than the recommended value, while fruits, beans, soy products, and milk Insufficient consumption
At the same time, the proportion of residents eating out is increasing, and the oil and salt in canteens, restaurants, and processed food should cause concern
The problem of children and adolescents frequently drinking sugary drinks has become prominent
The smoking rate among people over 15 years old and the alcohol consumption rate in adults within 30 days are more than a quarter
In addition, some key areas and key populations, such as infants and young children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly, face important micronutrient deficiencies that still require attention
The problem of insufficient physical activity among residents is widespread
The "Report" shows that with the general decrease in the occupational labor intensity of residents, the increasing convenience of travel, the obvious reduction of housework, the popularization of electronic products, etc.
, the problem of insufficient physical activity of residents is widespread
At the same time, the proportion of residents taking active exercise is not high, and the proportion of adults who take physical exercise at least once a week is less than a quarter
Zhao Wenhua, chief expert in nutrition at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said that unhealthy lifestyles have a huge impact on the occurrence of overweight and obesity
Monitoring results show that more than 50% of adult residents in China are overweight and obese, close to 20% of children and adolescents between 6 and 17 years old, and 10% of children under 6 years old
On the one hand, the dietary structure of Chinese residents is unreasonable; on the other hand, the general increase in static life time of residents has led to a reduction in energy consumption, and the imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure is the direct cause of individual overweight and obesity
Li Bin said that in response to these still existing nutritional problems, the next step will be to promote the implementation of the Healthy China Reasonable Diet Action and the National Nutrition Plan to actively respond
The incidence of chronic diseases has increased, and deaths due to chronic diseases accounted for 88.
Li Bin reminded that as the average life expectancy of residents continues to increase, the survival period of patients with chronic diseases continues to extend, coupled with the impact of population aging, urbanization, industrialization, and the prevalence of behavioral risk factors on the incidence of chronic diseases, the base of chronic disease patients in China will continue to expand.
At the same time, the proportion of deaths due to chronic diseases will continue to increase
The "Report" shows that in 2019, China's deaths caused by chronic diseases accounted for 88.
5% of the total deaths, and the central cerebrovascular disease, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease deaths accounted for 80.
The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer has increased compared with 2015.
The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in China is 27.
5% for residents aged 18 and over.
The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 11.
9%, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 8.
2%, and the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among residents 40 years of age and above was 13.
6%, both of which increased compared with the results released in 2015
The prevention and control of chronic diseases in China still faces huge challenges