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    Home > Food News > Nutrition News > Cigarettes with reduced nicotine levels can reduce the amount smoked by anxious, depressed smokers

    Cigarettes with reduced nicotine levels can reduce the amount smoked by anxious, depressed smokers

    • Last Update: 2022-11-15
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Researchers at Penn State School of Medicine and Harvard Medical School say that reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes to non-addictive levels can reduce smoking
    without worsening the mental health of smokers with mood or anxiety disorders.
    They say reducing the amount of nicotine in cigarettes can also reduce addiction, reduce exposure to toxic substances and increase smokers' chances of

    In the United States, tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of
    premature death and disease.
    The U.
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the New Zealand government recently proposed limiting the amount of nicotine in cigarettes to the lowest levels
    that are addictive.
    Previous research has shown that reducing nicotine levels can help smokers quit, but there is little evidence on whether these policies adversely affect current or previous smokers with emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety — conditions that are estimated to be 38 percent of smokers in the United States

    Jonathan Foulds, a professor of public health sciences, psychiatry and behavioral health, said smokers with mental health problems were more likely to experience severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms and had a lower
    success rate of quitting.
    He also said there has been speculation that reducing nicotine levels to very low levels could worsen psychiatric symptoms in smokers with mental health problems, leading to more smoking and increasing exposure to
    toxic substances or harmful chemicals.

    Researchers studied 188 smokers who either had a history of mood or anxiety disorders or did not currently have a plan to quit smoking
    Volunteers were randomly assigned to receive study cigarettes containing normal nicotine content (11.
    6 mg nicotine per cigarette) and another group receiving cigarettes with gradually reduced nicotine content (the final nicotine content was 0.
    2 mg nicotine per cigarette) for 18 weeks
    At the beginning and end of the study, the researchers measured levels of cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine), levels of harmful chemicals, cigarette dependence index, and various mental health indicators

    The researchers observed no statistically significant difference
    in mental health measures between the two groups at the end of the study.
    The team used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a six-self-reported assessment in which participants reported on a 5-point scale the degree of feeling or emotion they experienced, such as "nervousness," "hopelessness," or "depression to the point that nothing would cheer them up
    " The score is obtained by summing the points of the six experiences
    Participants in the nicotine reduction group scored an average of 5.
    3 points at the start of the study and an average final score of 4.
    6 points, while participants in the normal nicotine group scored an average of 6.
    1 points at the start of the study and a final score of about 4.
    9 points

    Foulds, a researcher at the Cancer Institute at Pennsylvania State University, said: "These findings are important because we want to understand the impact
    of these policies on smokers with anxiety or depressive disorders.
    " "Our data show no significant differences in mental health measures between the two groups, suggesting that reducing nicotine cigarettes may not have adverse psychological effects
    in this population.

    Similar to previous studies, Foulds and his team found that the group in the nicotine reduction group absorbed lower amounts of nicotine and ingested lower levels of harmful carcinogens, such as the biomarker 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-propyl)-1-butanol, commonly referred to as NNAL.

    At the end of the randomized phase of the trial, this group also smoked fewer cigarettes and reported lower
    levels of nicotine addiction.
    The findings were published Nov.
    2 in
    the journal PLoS Synthesis.

    The study was unique in that after 18 weeks, both groups of participants had the option to "choose their treatment.
    They can reuse their cigarettes, continue smoking research cigarettes, or try to quit
    Of the 188 participants in the study, those who randomly selected cigarettes with lower nicotine content were more likely to quit after 12 weeks (18.
    1 percent), compared with those in the control group (usually nicotine content) (4.
    3 percent).

    "We believe this is the first randomized trial to find that smokers who use cigarettes with very low nicotine content are more likely to quit (biochemically verified)
    three months after the end of the trial," Foulds said.

    "Our findings suggest that these policies may reduce nicotine absorption from cigarettes without worsening the mental health of smokers with mood or anxiety disorders," said
    Eden Evans, professor of family psychiatry at Cox at Harvard Medical School.
    "They also show that smokers with mood and anxiety disorders can successfully quit smoking through these policies
    with the right support and resources.

    This article is an English version of an article which is originally in the Chinese language on and is provided for information purposes only. This website makes no representation or warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, completeness ownership or reliability of the article or any translations thereof. If you have any concerns or complaints relating to the article, please send an email, providing a detailed description of the concern or complaint, to A staff member will contact you within 5 working days. Once verified, infringing content will be removed immediately.

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