On February 14, congo (DRC) health authorities announced on the 14th that a medical worker had been found infected with Ebola virus (EVD) in the eastern part of the country.
this is the fourth case of infection reported in the country since the beginning of this month and the first case of infection between medical personnel.
, there have been cases of infection in Guinea, and WHO says it will travel quickly to Guinea to respond to the outbreak of EVD.
the hospital where one of the victims of the recent Ebola outbreak in Congo (DRC) died on February 11.
, Congo declared the country's 11th Ebola outbreak over.
unfortunately, it hasn't been six months since EVD made a comeback.
an Ebola survivor holds her six-month-old son at a UNICEF-supported nursery in Beni, eastern Congo.
/HubbardEVD, a negative-chain RNA virus in the silk virus department, is one of the world's deadliest viral diseases.
discovered in 1976 that there had been two consecutive outbreaks of deadly haemorrhagic fever across Central Africa, the first in the Congo (DRC) in a village near the Ebola River, so the virus was named Ebola, and the second outbreak occurred in what is now South Sudan, about 850 kilometres away.
, scientists did not know the source of EVD, and public health officials believe the outbreaks are a single event associated with infected people traveling between the two locations.
, however, scientists later discovered that the two outbreaks were caused by two genetically different viruses, the Zaire Ebola virus and the Sudan Ebola virus.
, scientists have concluded that the virus comes from two different sources and spreads to people in each affected area.
May last year, the NEW England Medical Journal published a study called "Ebola" that provides a detailed explanation of how humans understand the Ebola outbreak.
Ebola.DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1901594 The study is based on the nature of a virus that they believe is transmitted by animals, most likely from bats or non-human primates (chimpanzees and monkeys, etc.) that transmit it to other animals, such as apes, monkeys, and humans.
is a zoonotic diseased primary preserved in animal species that occasionally spills into humans and other mammals as ends, intermediates or amplified hosts. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1901594EVD is caused by a group of six known Ebola virus genus: Zaire, Bendibujo, Sudan, Tay Forest, Reston and Bunbari.
Of these viruses, four (Zaire, Bendibujo, Sudanese, Tay Forest viruses) can cause human disease;
the virus is initially transmitted to humans through direct contact with the animal's blood, body fluids and tissues, and then to others through the body fluids of EVD patients.
EVD incubation period is 2 to 21 days from the time between the time the virus infection is obtained and the ont of symptoms, and the infected population is contagious only after the ont of symptoms.
mainly fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function or bleeding symptoms.
patients will still experience fatigue, muscle aching, eye and vision problems, and stomach pain after recovery.
clinical symptoms and treatment.
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1901594 A previous study published in The Lancet showed that EVD tends to persist in areas of human immunological privilege such as the eyes, central nervous system, and testicles, where the antiviral immune response is less effective against the virus, regardless of the severity of the acute disease.
of the virus is associated with clinical sequelae, disease reactivation, long-term virus shedding and viral transmission.
indicate delays in the removal of the virus and an increased risk of re-transmission where the primary outbreak is under control.
order of Ebola virus infection and disease evolution.
Ebola virus disease. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736 (18) 33132-5 Studies have shown that viral RNA can be detected in other body fluids such as saliva, tears, sweat, mother's milk, urine, eye fluid, amniotic fluid, vaginal fluid, vaginal fluid, and semen after the RT-PCR test in the blood turns negative during the acute and recovery periods of the disease.
semen of cured patients remained positive for RT-PCR for several months to several years after discharge, and viral RNA concentrations dropped fourfold per month.
virus found in semen is still contagious and sexually transmitted more than a year after the onset of the disease.
virus and epidemiological data show that EVD predation existed before the outbreak, leading to the spread of EVD as a result of population growth, invasive destruction of forest areas, and direct interaction with wildlife, such as the consumption of forest prey.
outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016 was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak, resulting in more than 28,000 confirmed cases and 11,000 deaths in several West African countries.
outbreak first occurred in Guinea, spreading to urban areas and across borders within weeks, then overland borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, and within months became a global epidemic.
as of 25 June 2020, confirmed and suspected cases of Ebola virus disease by week of onset in health districts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
WHOEVD is a level 4 virus, and "level 4 virus" is the highest level of safe isolation when isolating and experimenting with microbial tissue structures in the laboratory.
We are familiar with HIV and neo-coronavirus levels of level three, that is, it is necessary to do the new coronavirus research level 3 laboratory, but to do Ebola live virus research must be in the level 4 laboratory.
diseases caused by the fourth pole in humans are in the vast majority of cases inexoplasmable.
in recent years, as human activity has expanded and new viruses have begun to emerge in the African rainforests, which can be deadly, we are now in a world where new pathogens will emerge and humanity is under threat.
Scientists warn that there will be more zoonotic diseases, namely those transmitted from animals to humans, yellow fever, various forms of influenza, rabies, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, which are transmitted from animals to humans through animals such as rodents or insects.
call for African scientists in Congo and elsewhere to be relied upon as sentinels to warn of future outbreaks of disease.
since yellow fever, which first infects humans in animals, was first detected in 1901, scientists have discovered at least 200 viruses known to cause human diseases.
, according to Mark Woolhouse, professor of infectious disease epidemiology at the University of Edinburgh, new strains are detected at three to four times a year.
most of them come from animals.
experts say the increase in the number of emerging viruses is largely the result of ecological destruction and wildlife trade.
with the disappearance of natural habitats, animals such as rats, bats and insects survived and large animals were wiped out.
they can live with humans and are often suspected of being the medium that can bring new diseases to humans.
have linked past Ebola outbreaks to massive human incursions into rainforests.
in a 2017 study, researchers used satellite data to identify 25 of the 27 Ebola outbreaks that occurred between 2001 and 2014 within the boundaries of rainforest biomes in Central and West Africa, starting two years ago when deforestation occurred.
added that zoonotic Ebola outbreaks occur in areas with high population density and suitable virus conditions, but that the relative importance of forest loss is partly unaffected by these factors.
in the first 14 years of the 21st century, the rainforests of the Congo River basin felled into areas bigger than Bangladesh.
the United Nations warned that the country's rainforests could disappear completely by the end of the century if current deforestation and population growth trends continue.
this happens, animals and the viruses they carry collide with humans in new and often catastrophic ways.
Whether it's EVD or Covid-19, they're just one of many undiscovered pathogens, and their outbreaks have exposed the limitations of our ability to respond to epidemic health emergencies, as well as the challenges they face to national and international health security, from the challenges of isolation procedures and psychology to the effective provision of care.
, for human beings, accelerating coping strategies should be accompanied by protecting the environment.
s science makes it clear that if we continue to aggressively develop wildlife resources and destroy natural ecosystems, we are likely to continue to be threatened by emerging zoonotic diseases for years to come.
epidemic, which affects not only people's lives but also the economies of countries, has hit the poorest and most vulnerable hardest in the past few months.
to prevent future outbreaks, we must be more careful to protect our natural environment.
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