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    Copper subgroup element simple substance

    • Last Update: 2021-06-30
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Copper is the first metal widely used by mankind.
    About 3000 BC, mankind began to use copper

    Later, bronze (copper-tin alloy) with higher strength and easier processing appeared, and became an important material for manufacturing production tools and weapons before the appearance of ironware

    The use of bronze promoted the development of agricultural production.
    Historically, the period from 3000 BC to 1000 BC where bronze occupies an important position is called the "Bronze Age" (also known as the "Bronze Age")


    Among all metals, copper subgroup elements have the best electrical and thermal conductivity (of which silver is the first); they also have good ductility
    Copper subgroup elements are easy to form alloys, especially copper alloys, such as
    brass (containing 40% zinc), bronze (containing about 15% tin, 5% zinc), cupronickel (containing 13%-15% nickel) and so on
    The metallicity of copper subgroup elements decreases with the increase of atomic number, which is exactly the opposite of alkali metals


    Copper is relatively stable in dry air, but in contact with humid air containing carbon dioxide , a layer of patina will slowly form on the surface of copper.

    2Cu+O 2 +H 2 O+CO 2 =Cu(OH) 2 ·CuCO 3

    Silver and gold do not react in the air
    If the air contains H
    2 S gas, a black film of Ag 2 S will be formed on the surface quickly after contact with silver, which will make the silver lose its silver-white luster

    Copper, silver, and gold cannot react with dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sulfuric acid
    Copper and silver are soluble in
    nitric acid and react slowly with hot concentrated sulfuric acid

    Among the copper sub-group elements, gold has the worst activity and is insoluble in nitric acid but only soluble in aqua regia

    Au+4HCl+HNO 3 =HAuCl 4 +NO+2H 2 O

    The red hot copper reacts with oxygen in the air to produce CuO, which decomposes to Cu 2 O at high temperatures
    Silver and gold are also stable in the air at high temperatures


    Copper strong ligand (e.
    , the CN
    - ) when the action of water can be discharged with H 2

    8CN + 2Cu - + 2H 2 O = 2 [a Cu (the CN) .
    ] .
    - + 2OH - + H 2

    In the presence of oxygen, Cu can also react with ligands with weaker coordination capabilities

    + 8NH 2Cu .
    + O 2 + 2H 2 O = 2 [a Cu (NH2 .
    ) .
    ] 2 + + 4OH -



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