Global Coatings Network News:
Global Coatings Network News:
A few days ago, a European research institution dedicated to the protection of human health in the environment, workplace and food fields issued a proposal: require the definition of titanium dioxide (Ti02, titanium dioxide) as a carcinogen!
The French Agency for Food, Environment and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) stated in a document that titanium dioxide is often used in coatings, building materials and other industrial and consumer products.
According to its research results, it is recommended to be listed as 1B that may cause cancer through inhalation Class carcinogens.
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has issued this document submitted by ANSES on May 31, 2016 that requires titanium dioxide to be included in the harmonized classification of hazardous substances.
Currently, this document is seeking opinions from EU countries, and the deadline is July 15, 2016.
After that, ECHA will have 18 months to consider and give a final proposal to the European Commission.
As a white inorganic pigment, titanium dioxide is derived from rocks and minerals, and has been used in many products for decades.
According to the Titanium Dioxide Branch of the National Chemical Industry Productivity Promotion Center, according to ECHA’s CLP regulations (classification, labeling and packaging of substances/mixtures), if ANSES’s proposal to classify titanium dioxide as Class 1B (human carcinogen) is accepted, then All coatings containing titanium dioxide within the EU will likely be classified as carcinogens, and the affected countries will involve 28 EU member states as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
The use of carcinogens listed in the CLP regulations in categories 1A and 1B in the consumer sector is restricted, which means that coatings containing titanium dioxide in the formulation may exit the consumer retail sector and can only be sold to professional users.
Moreover, once the European Commission officially approves this document, environmental protection organizations and governments around the world will most likely refer to the EU classification, so that the global coatings market will be impacted!
Regarding the ANSES document, a non-profit organization under the European Chemical Industry Council, the Titanium Dioxide Manufacturers Association (TDMA), issued a response statement stating that it had conducted a classification evaluation study on titanium dioxide 6 years ago.
According to this evaluation According to the report, within the scope of the EU chemical REACH regulation, "based on scientific and effective research evaluation, titanium dioxide should not be included in the classification of toxic substances in any form.
" In addition, the results of an epidemiological study are the same as this conclusion.
This study investigated the working conditions of 20,000 workers in 15 titanium dioxide manufacturing plants for decades.
The results showed that frequent exposure to titanium dioxide did not affect them.
Harm to your health.
TDMA stated that it will promptly announce new findings and new developments in the evaluation of this product.
At the same time, the association also stated that it would "carefully review" the French proposal and provide detailed responses to the ECHA public consultation.
According to the data of China's Titanium Dioxide Industry Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance, a paper by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has studied the carcinogenicity of titanium dioxide.
The paper pointed out that in the United States and Europe in 1970 and 2000, respectively, the level of occupational exposure of workers to titanium dioxide dust during the production of titanium dioxide was screened, although the exposure levels of "site cleaning" and "maintenance" related occupations were very high.
, But the highest is the "packaging" and "milling" process of titanium dioxide.
The average level of occupational exposure to "inhalable dust" is 6 mg/m3 (geometric mean), but this standard was ignored later.
There is no readily available data to specify or quantify the standards for occupational exposure to "ultrafine titanium dioxide" dust.
However, the workers in the titanium dioxide production plant are not only exposed to titanium dioxide dust, but also directly exposed to particles such as ore powder, dust, strong acids and asbestos fibers.
North America and Western European countries have conducted three sets of "epidemiological cohort studies" and a set of "population-based case-control studies" to evaluate whether titanium dioxide can cause cancer in humans.
The largest set of "epidemiological cohort studies" is a survey of production workers in the titanium dioxide industry.
These workers come from six European countries and are all white males.
This survey shows that compared with the general population, these workers have an increased risk of lung cancer; however, in the survey, no evidence of an "exposure-response relationship" was found.
Compared with ordinary people, these workers did not increase the death rate due to kidney cancer, but they showed a slight "exposure-response relationship.
" The other two surveys were conducted in the United States.
Neither of these two surveys reported whether there was an increase in the incidence of lung cancer or other cancers, and there was no report on the incidence of kidney cancer, probably because such cases were relatively rare.
In short, as has happened in Western European countries and North American countries in recent decades, investigations and studies have not found a direct relationship between occupational exposure to titanium dioxide and increased cancer risk.
In addition, there is also an analysis of experimental data that titanium dioxide causes cancer in animals.
The laboratory uses "titanium dioxide" and "ultrafine titanium dioxide" to test the carcinogenicity of titanium dioxide on mice by the following methods: give mice and rats a "multiple administration method"; make rats and female mice " Inhalation exposure”; “intratracheal administration” to hamsters, female rats and mice; “subcutaneous injection” to rats; “intraperitoneal injection” to male rats and female rats.
In one group of "inhalation exposure experiments", the incidence of "lung tumors" (benign and malignant) in female rats increased; in the other group of "high-dose inhalation exposure experiments", male rats and female rats suffered from The incidence of "benign lung tumors" has increased.
In this group of "high-dose inhalation exposure experiments", female rats were diagnosed as "cystic keratinized lesions" due to "squamous cell carcinoma", but were later re-diagnosed as "non-pulmonary tumor keratinized cysts.
" Both groups of rats and female mice "inhalation exposure experiments" proved negative results.
The group of experiments that gave rats "intratracheal medication" after using two kinds of titanium dioxide showed that the incidence of benign lung tumors and malignant lung tumors in female rats increased at the same time, while the incidence of lung tumors in hamsters and female mice did not.
The experiments of "gavage", "subcutaneous injection" and "intraperitoneal injection" to rats and mice did not find any significant increase in the incidence of tumors.
Although humans may be exposed to titanium dioxide through inhalation, ingestion or skin contact, the "interstitial dynamics" of the human lungs after inhalation of titanium dioxide is different from that of laboratory animals.
(Generally speaking, "particulate characteristics" and "host factors" will affect the deposition pattern of titanium dioxide after inhalation; particles that are insoluble in water, such as titanium dioxide-related monographs, are classified as carbon black).
The research data of human inhalation of titanium dioxide mainly comes from case reports.
These data show that titanium dioxide is mainly deposited in "alveolar tissue" and "lymphatic tissue".
A clinical investigation study of oral titanium dioxide showed that not only the gastrointestinal tract will be selectively absorbed according to the size of titanium dioxide particles, but the content of titanium dioxide in the blood is also related to the particle size.
Investigation and research also show that the "ultra-fine titanium dioxide" used in "sunscreen cream" is safe for human skin.
Titanium dioxide can only penetrate into the outermost cell of the skin, the "stratum corneum.
" Therefore, healthy skin can effectively prevent the penetration of titanium dioxide into the body.
There is no research data to prove whether damaged skin can also effectively prevent the penetration of titanium dioxide.
Indeed, several groups of studies have shown that workers exposed to titanium dioxide dust directly inhale titanium dioxide and cause a series of physical changes, including "pulmonary failure", "pleural plaques and thickening of the pleura", and mild " Alveolar tissue fibrosis" and so on.
Of course, in these investigations, the workers were also directly exposed to "asbestos" and "silica.
Titanium dioxide can cause varying degrees of "inflammation" and lung-related diseases, including "pulmonary epithelial cell damage", "cholesterol granuloma" and "fibrosis".
In animal experiments, when rodents are exposed to "ultra-fine titanium dioxide", the probability of lung lesions is greater than in the environment of "ultra-fine titanium dioxide".
The reason for this difference is that the surface area of the particles exerts different pressure on the lungs of animals, and it is also considered to be the result of damage to the medium that isolates and swallows "ultrafine titanium dioxide.
Compared with other particles, "fine titanium dioxide particles" (Fine titanium dioxide particles) show extremely low toxicity.
At high concentrations, "Ultrafine titanium dioxide particles" particles can block the phagocytosis of "alveolar macrophages"; however, this phenomenon will not occur if it is replaced with "ultrafine titanium dioxide".
Experiments with "ultra-fine titanium dioxide" and "ultra-fine titanium dioxide" and "purified DNA" in a test tube showed that the DNA was destroyed, proving that these two substances have extremely strong "oxidizing properties.
" "Ultra-fine titanium dioxide" exhibits a stronger reaction than "ultra-fine titanium dioxide", especially in environments exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet rays.
The experiment of "intraperitoneal injection" in mice and rats showed that the mice's "micronucleus of bone marrow cells" and "peripheral blood lymphocytes" increased; the mice had "gene mutations" in the "lung gland epithelial cells".
In the experiment of "intratracheal medication" in rats, no oxidation of DNA was found in the lung tissue of the rats.
(Source: Global Coatings Network) (For more information, please log in: Global Coatings Network http:// )