The research team and collaborators of the Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Science synodry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Synthetic Biology of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology have artificially created a single chromosome eukaryotic cells for the first time in the world, and the results were published online on August 2, 2018 in the internationally renowned academic journal Nature.
this achievement is a landmark breakthrough in synthetic biology, supported by projects such as "Molecular Mechanism and Regulation of Cell Destiny Plasticity" and the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Ministry of Science and Technology, which is the leading project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. can man create life
? In 2010, The American scientist J. Craig Venter and his team caused a stir when they reported in Science that the world's first "artificial life" - a pronuclear mycoplasma containing a fully artificial chemical synthesis that is almost identical to a natural chromosomal sequence - caused a stir.
this time, the research team, led by the Yu-Heavy Army Research Group, completed the artificial creation of a single-celled eukukaryotic organism, a natural sixteen chromosomes of wine yeast, into a fully functional single chromosome.
this work shows that natural complex life systems can be simplified by artificial intervention, the boundaries of natural life can be broken by man-made, and even artificial creation of new natural life does not exist.
biology textbooks divide the living organisms that exist in nature into eukalatomas with chromosome cell nucleogenes wrapped in the nucleosomes of the nucleosome and the epigenetic sackars of chromosomes.
chromosomes carry genetic information about the growth and reproduction of life, eukaryotics usually contain multiple chromosomes of a line structure, while prokaryotics usually contain a chromosome of a ring structure.
researchers boldly assumed that eukaryotes could load all genetic material with a linear chromosome and perform normal cellular functions, just like pronuclear organisms. After "bold guesses",
, he and Xue Xiaoli's associate researcher "engineered precision design" the guiding principles of custom-made single-chromosome yeast, as well as rational analysis, experimental design, engineering propulsion of the overall program.
Ph.D. student Yu Yang began experimenting with and developing efficient chromosomal operations in 2013.
after 4 years, through 15 rounds of chromosomal fusion, the final success of the creation of only one linear chromosome wine yeast strain SY14.
since then, the Zhai Heavy Military Research Group has further worked with the Research Group of Zhao Guoping, a key laboratory of synthetic biology, Zhou Jinqiu Research Group of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan Fraser Gene Information Co., Ltd. and Zhao Zhihu Researcher of the Academy of Military Medicine to further identify the metabolism, physiology and reproduction of SY14. The function and the three-dimensional structure of its chromosomes are found to have changed greatly in the three-dimensional structure of the artificially created single-line chromosome, but SY14 yeast has normal cellular function, thus subverting the traditional concept of chromosome three-dimensional structure determining gene space-time expression, and revealing a new relationship between the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes and the realization of cell life function.
the research results are a new paradigm for exploring the major basic scientific problems in the origin and evolution of life through classical molecular biology "hypothesis drive" and synthetic biology "engineered research model".
the natural complex yeast chromosomes through artificial transformation in a new form of simplicity, is a major breakthrough after the original nuclear bacteria "artificial life." the "birth" of single-chromosome yeast
, together with the full artificial synthesis of yeast chromosomes involving Chinese scientists, is the second time that Chinese scholars have once again used synthetic science strategies to answer a major fundamental question in the field of life science, namely, to build a bridge between pronuclear and e).whatiemic organisms.
this is a vivid embodiment of the concept of synthetic biology", which opens up a new direction for the study of the nature of life.
wine yeast is an important model for the study of chromosomal abnormalities, 1/3 gene is homologous with human genes with 23 pairs of chromosomes.
telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of mitochondria.
as the number of cell divisions increases, the length of the telomeres decreases and the cells die when the telomeres become no longer short.
premature aging in humans is directly related to the telomere length of chromosomes.
, telomere shortening is also associated with many diseases, including genetic mutations, tumor formation, etc.
compared with the 32 telomeres of natural yeast, the single linear chromosome scored by the team of yuyujun has created only 2 telomeres, which provides a good model for the study of human telomere function and cellular aging.