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    Home > Food News > Sweetener News > FSHW: Maillard Reaction in Chinese Braised Pork: Potential Risks and Volatile Compounds

    FSHW: Maillard Reaction in Chinese Braised Pork: Potential Risks and Volatile Compounds

    • Last Update: 2021-05-08
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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      Food-related mutagens play an important role in human carcinogens, and about one-third of cancers are caused by this.
    As Maillard Reaction (MR) is widespread in the food thermal processing industry, the risks associated with food MR have attracted more and more attention.
    At present, MR harmful products mainly include acrylamide (AA), heterocyclic amine (HAAs), 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) and furan.
     
      AA is a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen.
    It has been found in a variety of thermally processed foods such as French fries, biscuits and coffee.
    Due to its neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, AA was classified as a 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as early as 1996, and was classified as a Class II carcinogen and teratogenic substance by the European Commission in 2002, 2010 It was listed as a "very high worry" substance by the European Chemical Agency in 1988.
    In 1977, a study reported for the first time the presence of HAAs in the
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    html" class="zdbq" title="Cooking related food information" target="_blank">cooking of household meat products , after which such heterocyclic substances were identified as potentially teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds.
    Among more than thirty types of HAAs, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ) is classified as a 2A carcinogen by IARC, and 2-amino-3,4- Dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (MeIQ) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are also classified by IARC Class 2B carcinogens.
    4-MI is widely produced in the caramelization process and related beverages.
    A toxicology report from the National Academy of Environmental Health Sciences indicated that 4-MI induces lung/bronchiole tumors in male and female rats.
    Furan is more widespread in food, especially during food storage, such as coffee, infant milk products, bread, snacks and so on.
    4-MI and furan are classified as category 2B carcinogens by IARC.
     
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    In the cooking process of braised pork, meat, sugar and soy sauce provide a wealth of MR precursor substances, which are prone to MR at high temperatures.
    In addition to the harmful products mentioned above, MR is also the main source of the aroma and attractive color of braised pork.
    Therefore, it is meaningful to study the harmful and flavor products produced by MR in braised pork.
     
      Dr.
    Li He, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, North University of China, and Professor Yu Shujuan, School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, etc.
    In this paper, the real food system of Chinese braised pork was measured and the content of MR harmful products was determined; an attempt was made.
    A formula for quantitative risk assessment; the main flavor compounds are identified, and the safety risks and flavor of braised pork are intuitively understood
      Results and Discussion
     
      Content of harmful MR products
     
      The content of AA, HAAs, 4-MI and furan in braised pork due to the harmful products generated by MR is shown in Figure 2.
    The content of AA in braised pork is less, and it is only detected in S5, which is mainly due to the lack of it.
    The resulting precursor material.
    AA is mainly found in heat-processed foods containing more carbohydrates, such as French fries, coffee and other starch products.
    Among HAAs, only PhIP was detected in S5, but its content was below the quantitative limit of the method, so the exact content could not be obtained.
    In the process of processing, furan has been gradually increasing, and its content is 0.
    049~0.
    092 mg/kg.
    This is because furan can be produced in many ways.
    Based on the ingredients in the braised pork system, three possible furan formation pathways are given in the article (see text).
    4-MI was detected in both S4 and S5.
    There are two main sources for this: one is from soy sauce, because the content of 4-MI in the soy sauce used in this experiment is (0.
    76±0.
    10) mg/kg; the other is from MR, which is used in braised pork cooking.
    It is rich in 4-MI precursor substances.
      Figure 2 The content of three harmful MR products in braised pork
     
      Quantitative risk assessment
     
      The article tries to put forward a method of quantitatively assessing risk.
      In the formula, T is the comprehensive value of risk, T k is the risk value of a compound, Ak is the weight of a certain compound, ck is the concentration of the compound, m lk is the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the compound, n is the number of compounds.
     
      Table 1 Contents of 8 compounds in braised pork

     
      Figure 3 The risk values ​​of the three compounds in braised pork
     
      Table 1 shows the classification, weight, and ADI of the compounds, and Figure 3 shows the measured risk values ​​of the three compounds.
    For example, the content of 4-MI is higher than AA, but its risk value T is much lower than AA, which is caused by the difference between its classification and ADI.
    The process and procedures for assessing food risks are complicated.
    Especially in the quantitative assessment, the content, toxicity, and intake of residents will have a significant impact.
    This article gives a quantitative assessment method, but due to the lack of most compounds For information on toxicity and ADI, this method has certain limitations.
     
      Flavor compounds in braised pork
     
      Using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), 57 kinds of volatile substances were identified in braised pork, including 9 kinds of alkanes, 4 kinds of alcohols, and 8 kinds of aldehydes.
    , 4 ketones, 7 acids, 11 esters, 7 furans and pyrazines, and 7 other substances.
    In the S5 sample, the order of relative content is as follows: alcohols>esters>acids>aldehydes>furans and pyrazines>alkanes>others>ketones.
      Figure 4 Flavor description of different compounds
     
      Figure 4 shows the description of different volatile substances that reflect different flavors.
    These flavored substances are mainly derived from edible oil oxidation, pork hydrolysis and MR.
    As the braised pork system is relatively complex, how to suppress the MR-related harmful products in food and promote the generation of aromatic substances is a problem to be solved.
     
      Conclusion
     
      In Chinese->The results show that soy sauce provides the main precursor substances for the system and promotes the formation of harmful products.
    The proposed quantitative formula may provide a new idea for food risk assessment.
    This assessment needs to be based on individual consumer habits.
    In some cases (such as often eating braised pork), they may reach a level that is unfavorable to human health.
    Through HS-SPME-GC-MS, a total of 57 volatile substances were identified in braised pork.
    The results showed that alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters are the main substances that contribute to flavor, and they are mainly derived from soy sauce and edible oil , While furans and pyrazines contribute to the roast and caramel flavor, they are mainly derived from MR.

      Maillard reaction in Chinese household-prepared stewed pork balls with brown sauce: potentially risky and volatile products
     
      He Lia,b, Xiangyi Tangb, Chunjian Wub, Shujuan Yub,c,d,*
     
      a School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030052, China
     
      b College of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
     
      c Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510640, China
     
      d Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), Guangzhou, China
     
      e Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, China
     
      *Corresponding author: shujuanyu8@gmail.
    com
     
      Abstract
     
      The stewed pork balls with brown sauce (SPB-BS) in China is well known for its delicacy and preferred by consumers.
    Maillard reaction (MR) is widespread in SPB-BS due to the use of sugar, meat and sauce in the thermal process However, there is a lack of research on its risk and flavor by MR.
    By solid phase extraction combined with HPLC-MS, 4 kinds of harmful compounds including acrylamide (AA), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 4-methylimidazole (4 -MEI) and furan were analyzed in SPB-BS and their amounts ranged 0.
    05–0.
    50 mg/kg.
    The quantitative formula was proposed to e
    valuate the risk value of the SPB-BS, after taking into account the content, acceptable daily intake (ADI) and carcinogenicity of each compound.
    The risk values ​​were in range of 0.
    57–37.
    93, suggesting that the risk caused by MR in SPB- BS was low.
    By head space-solid phase microextraction combined with GC-MS, 57 volatile compounds in SPB-BS were identified with the dominant co
    ntribution of alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters.
    ba
    sed on the structures of these compounds and the composition of SPB-BS, lipid oxidation and MR are inferred to be responsible for the formation of compounds of the harmful and volatile.
    In addition, the added sauces and oil provides the main precursors to form the harmful and volatile compounds in SPB-BS, so it is necessary to point out a balance between them in the further study .
     
      《Maillard reaction in Chinese household-prepared stewed pork balls with brown sauce: potentially risky and volatile products》Food Science and Human Wellness 20212221-230。

      ,。(Maillard Reaction,MR),MR。,MR(AA)、(HAAs)、4-(4-MI)。
     
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    html" class="zdbq" title="Soy sauce related food information" target="_blank">。,、MR,MR。MR,。,MR。
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      、,MR;;,
      Results and Discussion
      Results and Discussion
     
      MR
      MR
     
      MR,AA、HAAs、4-MI2,AA,S5,。AA,、。HAAs,PhIPS5,,。,,0.
    049~0.
    092 mg/kg,。,()。S4S54-MI。:,,4-MI(0.
    76±0.
    10)mg/kg;MR,4-MI。
      2  MR
      2  MR
     
      
      
     
      。
      ,T,T k ,A k ,c k ,m lk (ADI),n。
     
      1  8

     

      3 
     3 
     
      1、ADI,3。:4-MIAA,TAA,ADI。,,、、,,ADI,。
     
      
      
     
      ---(HS-SPME-GC-MS),57 ,9 、4 、8 、4 、7 、11 、7 7。S5,:>>>>>>>。
      4 
      4 
     
      4。、MR。,MR,,。
     
      Conclusion
      Conclusion
     
      ,MR0.
    05~0.
    50 mg/kg。,,。,,(),。HS-SPME-GC-MS,57 ,,、、,,,MR。

      Maillard reaction in Chinese household-prepared stewed pork balls with brown sauce: potentially risky and volatile products
     
      He Lia,b, Xiangyi Tangb, Chunjian Wub, Shujuan Yub,c,d,*
     
      a School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030052, China
     
      b College of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
     
      c Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510640, China
     
      d Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), Guangzhou, China
     
      e Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, China
     
      *Corresponding author: shujuanyu8@gmail.
    com
     
      Abstract
     
      The stewed pork balls with brown sauce (SPB-BS) in China is well known for its delicacy and preferred by consumers.
    Maillard reaction (MR) is widespread in SPB-BS due to the use of sugar, meat and sauce in the thermal process.
    However, there is a lack of research on its risk and flavor by MR.
    By solid phase extraction combined with HPLC-MS, 4 kinds of harmful compounds including acrylamide (AA), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) and furan were analyzed in SPB-BS and their amounts ranged 0.
    05–0.
    50 mg/kg.
    The quantitative formula was proposed to evaluate the risk value of the SPB-BS, after taking into account the content, acceptable daily intake (ADI) and carcinogenicity of each compound.
    The risk values were in range of 0.
    57–37.
    93, suggesting that the risk caused by MR in SPB-BS was low.
    By head space-solid phase microextraction combined with GC-MS, 57 volatile compounds in SPB-BS were identified with the dominant contribution of alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters.
    based on the structures of these compounds and the composition of SPB-BS, lipid oxidation and MR are inferred to be responsible for the formation of the harmful and volatile compounds.
    In addition, the added sauces and oil provides the main precursors to form the harmful and volatile compounds in SPB-BS, so it is necessary to point out a balance between them in the further study.
     
      The article "Maillard reaction in Chinese household-prepared stewed pork balls with brown sauce: potentially risky and volatile products" was published in Food Science and Human Wellness 2021, Issue 2, pages 221-230.

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