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    Home > Food News > Food Articles > Grain has lost 4% during the harvest process. How to get from the field...

    Grain has lost 4% during the harvest process. How to get from the field...

    • Last Update: 2021-11-13
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    The food loss in the fields is serious
    .
    Recently, a set of data on the grain loss rate during the harvest stage has attracted attention: According to expert estimates, the post-harvest food loss and waste of farmers are more serious, and the total loss rate in the storage, consumption and harvest stages is 11.
    39%.
    Among them, three staple food crops (rice , Corn and wheat), the average harvest loss rate was 4.
    09%

    .
    The recently released "Food Conservation Action Plan" (hereinafter referred to as the plan) clearly stated that by 2025, the grain reduction and loss reduction measures in all links of the grain industry chain will be more hardened and refined, and the promotion of food reduction and loss reduction will achieve more obvious results

    .
    How to save food from the source of food production?

    4% of the food has been lost during the harvest

    In the whole grain industry chain, in addition to the consumption link, the harvest link may be the link with the most serious post-production loss and waste
    .
    According to the research data from the team of Professor Wu Laping of China Agricultural University on the field harvest loss of eight major grain and oil crops, including wheat, rice and corn, since 2015, farmers’ post-harvest food loss and waste are more serious.
    The total loss rate is 11.
    39%

    .
    Among them, the average harvest loss rate of the three staple food crops (rice, corn and wheat) was 4.
    09%, of which rice loss accounted for 3.
    55%, wheat loss accounted for 4.
    41%, and corn loss accounted for 2.
    58%

    .

    The above set of data also means that before the food comes to the table, there is serious waste in the field
    .
    Wu Laping, a professor at the School of Economics and Management of China Agricultural University, told a reporter from China Business Daily: "The "harvest link" can be divided into four small links: field harvesting, field transportation, threshing and clearing of grain.
    The most serious losses in these four links are In the field harvesting process, the field harvest loss rate of the three major staple grains averaged 1.
    97%

    .
    "

    "The losses in the field harvesting link mainly come from the harvesting methods, such as mechanical differences.
    Some farmers also encounter extreme weather such as rain and snow during the harvesting process, causing losses; followed by the threshing link, with an average loss rate of 0.
    74 in the three main grain threshing links.
    %; The loss of grain cleaning and field transportation is relatively light

    .
    " Wulaping said

    .

    Aiming at the problems of extensive planting, insufficient refinement of harvesting machinery, unmatched agricultural machinery and agronomics, and irregular operation of machine hands, the plan is proposed to speed up the selection and breeding of varieties that are suitable for breeding, popularize and apply precision seeding machinery and key technologies; focus on promoting fine grain Harvest, strengthen the integration of agricultural machinery, agronomy, and varieties, and improve the availability and coverage of key technologies
    .
    Formulate and revise technical guidelines for the reduction of mechanical harvest of rice, corn, wheat, and soybeans, and guide farmers to harvest at the right time

    .

    It is worth noting that farmers can lose at least 50 catties of grain per mu of land
    .
    During the autumn harvest this year, parts of the country experienced continuous rainy weather.
    The reduction in losses caused by mechanical harvesting of grain also enabled farmers to see tangible benefits

    .
    Sun Jianlong, head of the Yinjiawei Grain and Oil Plant Protection Agricultural Machinery Cooperative in Wuxing District, Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, told reporters that when ordinary harvesters can't reach the ground in continuous rainy weather, the cooperative uses crawler harvesters

    .
    Using a crawler-type harvester to harvest one acre of land can reduce about 50 catties of grain

    .

    The reduction of crops in the field is equal to the increase in production

    According to the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the annual global food loss from production to retailing accounts for about 14% of the world's food production
    .
    A 1% reduction in this loss is equivalent to an increase of more than 27 million tons of grain, enough for 70 million people to eat for a year

    .
    The person in charge of the Central Agricultural Office said that the plan focused on the whole chain and multiple links to carry out food saving and loss reduction actions, which is equivalent to adding "invisible fertile land" and opening up an important way to further ensure national food security

    .

    Wu Laping also told a reporter from China Business Daily that based on previous grain output, if effective measures are taken to reduce the grain loss rate of harvest and farmer storage by 1 percentage point, the annual grain demand of 72,888,200 people can be met
    .

    Ma Youxiang, the deputy minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, previously stated publicly that if China's grain loss is reduced by one percentage point, it would be equivalent to reducing the loss by 6.
    5 million tons.
    Based on 400 kg/year/person of grain, it can feed about 16 million people

    .
    In this sense, a reduction is an increase in production

    .

    It is worth noting that China’s current grain production has been harvested for 18 consecutive years, and the reduction of grain losses is particularly important for stabilizing production and supply, and strengthening food security
    .

    At present, most farmers are not paying enough attention to loss and waste
    .
    "The survey results show that most farmers don't pay enough attention to loss and waste.
    Taking the harvesting stage as an example, only 15.
    94% of the effective questionnaires received think that the food harvesting stage has a large loss, and 80.
    37% think it is not

    .
    " Wu Laping said that at present, China's food supply and demand are in a state of tight balance, which is also a long-term trend

    .
    Of course, there is no problem with ensuring food security

    .
    However, food loss not only means a direct reduction in the amount of food, but also causes a waste of inputs in large-scale production, such as water and soil resources and fertilizer resources, which increase the environmental pressure on our country

    .

    The plan proposes that by 2025, China's food-saving and loss-reduction system, standard system, and monitoring system will be basically established, the normal and long-term governance mechanism will be basically sound, the "CD Action" will be carried out in depth, and the problem of food waste will be effectively curbed, saving food and opposing waste.
    The whole society has become a common practice

    .

    How to save food in the field

    Improving the level of mechanization in the field is the key to saving food and reducing power
    .
    "During the investigation, it was discovered that for mechanical harvesting, after the crops fall down, the semi-feeding harvester is more suitable than the full-feeding harvester

    .
    " Wu Laping told reporters frankly, but the semi-feeding harvester requires planting row spacing and harvesting.
    The mechanical row spacing corresponds to that, so the penetration rate is low

    .
    To this end, it is necessary to increase the research and development and promotion of half-feed harvesters, and actively promote standardized planting (unified planting row spacing)

    .
    At the same time, according to the survey results, for wheat, the loss rate of mechanical harvesting is lower than that of manual harvesting.
    For rice and corn, although the loss rate of mechanical harvesting is slightly higher than that of manual harvesting, with the improvement of machinery, as the planting With the advancement of standardization, the mechanical harvest loss rate will inevitably continue to decrease

    .

    Li Guoxiang, a researcher at the Institute of Rural Development of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, also said that agricultural machinery and equipment that are not high in mechanization and cause excessive losses should be minimized to work in the fields
    .

    The General Office of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has also recently issued the "Notice on Regarding the Use of Machine Income Reduction as the Main Task of Grain Production Mechanization", which requires the full use of the guiding role of the agricultural machinery purchase subsidy policy, and guides the technological advancement of production enterprises and product upgrades.
    Speed ​​up the elimination of old harvesting machinery; strengthen the supervision of agricultural machinery test and appraisal and the quality investigation of combine harvesters to keep unqualified, non-durable, and inapplicable products out of the scope of policy support; encourage enterprises to increase investment in research and development of advanced and applicable harvesting machinery, Effectively improve machine collection and loss reduction performance

    .

    In addition to mechanical equipment, the working attitude and proficiency of farmers operating harvesting machinery in the field also directly affects the food loss during the harvesting process
    .
    Wu Laping told reporters that, for example, in wheat harvesting, the opening size of the harvester's air door, the speed of the harvester, and the size of the turning of the field are directly related to the loss of harvest

    .
    In addition, the proficiency of harvesters in operating machinery is also an important factor affecting the loss of harvesting links

    .
    Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the work precision of harvesters, especially the working attitude of the operators in mechanized harvesting

    .

    "It is recommended that starting from the main grain producing province, regular training should be conducted for the owners, operators and agricultural machinery drivers of agricultural machinery service organizations, including professional skills and professional ethics, such as the height of the harvester in rice harvesting, and the effectiveness of the harvester shutter in wheat harvesting.
    The size

    .
    At the same time, it enhances its awareness of loving food and saving food, and reduces the loss in the harvesting process

    .
    " Wu Laping said

    .

    It is worth noting that the plan has also formulated the system standards and investigation and evaluation mechanism for food saving and loss to ensure that the food saving and loss will be implemented and achieved results
    .
    The plan pointed out that it is necessary to strengthen the management of food and save food in accordance with the law, fully implement the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Anti-Food Waste", and formulate a food safety guarantee law

    .
    Improve related supporting systems, speed up the establishment of standards for the entire grain industry chain that meet the requirements of food saving and loss reduction, and formulate national and industry standards that promote food conservation

    .

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