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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > Highlights of science journals in May 2020

    Highlights of science journals in May 2020

    • Last Update: 2020-06-19
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    < br / > < br / > May 31, 2020 / < br / > Bio Valley < br / > bio on / -- may 2020 is coming to an endWhat are the highlights of Science Journal in May? Xiaobian has sorted this out and shared it with you< br / > 1< br / > two science papers pointed out that in rhesus monkeys, DNA vaccine can prevent sars-cov-2 infection, and previous infection can prevent re infection < br / > doi:10.1126/science.abc6284;doi:10.1126/science.abc4776 < br / >Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection is the two key issueCan the new type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection be prevented and whether the person who has recovered from COVID-19 can avoid reinfection? Two new studies, led by researchers at the Beth Israel deacon Medical Center (bidmc), provide new insights into these questionsThe related research results were published online in Science Journal on May 20, 2020The paper titles were "DNA vaccine protection against sars-cov-2 in rhesus macaques" and "sars-cov-2 infection protection against rechallenge in rhesus macaques"< br / > picture from science, published on 20 may 2020, doi:10.1126/science.abc6284 。 In the first study, the researchers confirmed that six candidate DNA vaccines induced neutralizing antibody responses in rhesus monkeys and prevented them from infecting sars-cov-2Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was developed by Barouch and colleagues in China in the middle of JanuaryWhen Chinese scientists published the viral genome, they began to develop COVID-19 vaccine and developed a series of candidate DNA vaccines expressing the spike protein variantsThese vaccines are designed to train the body's immune system to recognize and respond to the virus as soon as it is exposed< br / > < br / > in order to evaluate the efficacy of these vaccines, the researchers immunized 25 adult rhesus monkeys with DNA vaccine, and another 10 rhesus monkeys received sham control vaccinationThe vaccinated rhesus monkeys produced neutralizing antibodies against the virusAfter three weeks of intensive vaccination, all 35 rhesus monkeys were exposed to the virusThe follow-up test showed that compared with the control group, the virus load of vaccinated rhesus monkeys decreased significantly Among 25 vaccinated rhesus monkeys, 8 showed no detectable virus at any time point after exposure, and the remaining 17 showed low virus level In addition, higher antibody levels are associated with lower viral load, suggesting that neutralizing antibodies may be a protective factor and may prove to be a benchmark for clinical testing of sars-cov-2 vaccines < br / > < br / > in the second study, the researchers confirmed that rhesus monkeys recovered from covid-19 had natural protective immunity against reinfection "Individuals recovering from many viral infections usually produce antibodies that prevent reinfection, but not all viral infections produce this natural protective immunity," Barouch said < br / > < br / > after exposing nine adult rhesus monkeys to sars-cov-2 virus, the researchers monitored their virus levels as they recovered All nine animals recovered and produced antiviral antibodies More than a month after the initial infection, they exposed the monkeys to the virus again After the second exposure, they almost completely prevented the virus from reinfecting These data indicate that the animal model has a natural protective immunity to covid-19 after the initial infection < br / > 2 < br / > Science: develop a vaccine design strategy using artificial protein < br / > doi:10.1126/science.aay5051 In a new study, Professor Bruno Correia and his team from the protein design and immune Engineering Laboratory of the Federal Institute of technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, have now developed a strategy for designing artificial proteins, The designed artificial dry white can accurately guide the body's immune system to produce which antibodies The relevant research results were published in the Science Journal on May 15, 2020, and the paper title was "de novo protein design enables the precise induction of RSV neutralizing antibodies" The < br / > < br / > Correia team used computational methods to build artificial proteins "They don't exist in nature," said co lead author Che Yang We have developed a protein design algorithm called topobuilder It allows you to build proteins almost like putting Lego blocks together It's absolutely fascinating to assemble artificial proteins with new functions " The < br / > < br / > Correia team focused on designing a protein from scratch that could produce a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine RSV can lead to serious lung infection, which is one of the main causes of hospitalization for infants and the elderly "Despite decades of research, there is still no vaccine or cure for RSV," Correia said < br / > < br / > these artificial proteins are constructed in the laboratory, then tested in animal models, and trigger the immune system to produce specific antibodies against RSV weaknesses "Our findings are encouraging because they show that one day we will be able to stimulate the immune system to produce these specific antibodies, which will lead to more effective design of virus specific vaccines," Correia said We still have a lot of research work to do to make the vaccine we developed more effective - this research is the first step in this direction " < br / > < br / > doi:10.1126/science.aba2658; doi:10.1126/science.aba4357 < br / > < br / > during malaria infection, countless Plasmodium destroy the red blood cells they inhabit at the same time The damage can cause a wave of fever and chills in an infected person every 24, 48 or 72 hours, depending on the type of infection caused by the parasite strain For many years, scientists have assumed that the biological rhythms of hosts are responsible for the coordination and timing of Plasmodium activities In two new studies, however, the researchers found that Plasmodium has its own internal clock (or intrinsic clock), which can respond to the host and oscillate itself < br / > < br / > in the first study, rijo Ferreira and colleagues infected mice with Plasmodium chabaudi, which causes malaria in mice They found that neither keeping mice in dark for a long time nor changing their eating rhythm would disturb the strong cell cycle and gene expression rhythm of Plasmodium Schaefer When the rijo Ferreira team infected mice genetically engineered to have a 26 hour rather than 24-hour circadian rhythm, the parasite extended their asexual life cycle to 26 hours instead of a typical 24-hour cycle, suggesting that they were flexible and responsive to host oscillations < br / > < br / > at this point, the rijo Ferreira team predicts that if the parasite does not have an internal clock, they will soon become out of sync in hosts without a clear rhythm But when they infected the genetically modified mice with Plasmodium Schaefer, which lacked circadian rhythms, the parasite maintained a 24-hour cell cycle and gene expression rhythm within five to seven days, suggesting that they did have an internal clock Given that the internal clock of the parasite eventually lost synchronization, they concluded that its internal clock rhythm depended on the coordination of its host In the second study, a research team led by Steven HAase, a biologist at Duke University, found that when cultured in human blood, four Plasmodium strains that cause malaria in humans also exhibit internal oscillations in gene expression and cell cycle activity Although Plasmodium in vitro loses synchronization faster than that in mice, they can maintain their own rhythm in a two-day time window, which is similar to other culture systems that have been proven to have circadian rhythm < br / > 4 < br / > Science: local climate change is unlikely to lead to the early covid-19 pandemic < br / > doi:10.1126/science.abc2535 In a new study, researchers from Princeton University found that local climate change is unlikely to dominate the first wave of covid-19 A novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 strain that causes COVID-19 epidemic is also found to be affected by many people The speed of transmission of this pathogen means that climate conditions may only affect the current infection rate The related research results were published online in Science Journal on May 18, 2020 The title of the paper is "sustainable supply limits the role of climate in the early sars-cov-2 panel" < br / > picture from science, 2020, doi:10.1126/science.abc2535 。 "We don't expect warmer or wetter climates to slow the spread of the virus in the early stages of the covid-19 epidemic," said Rachel Baker, lead author and co-author of the paper and postdoctoral research assistant at the Princeton Institute for environmental research at Princeton University We do observe that climate has a certain impact on the scale and timing of the covid-19 epidemic, but in general, because so many people in the population are susceptible, the virus will spread rapidly regardless of the climate conditions " The rapid spread of the virus in Brazil, Ecuador, Australia and other tropical and southern hemisphere countries, where it began to spread in the summer, suggests that warmer conditions do not help stop the covid-19 epidemic, Baker said < br / > 5 < br / > full text compilation! Chinese scientists published science papers and found that two non competitive human neutralizing antibodies can block sars-cov-2 virus from binding to human ACE2 receptor < br / > doi:10.1126/science.abc2241 < br / > < br / > sars-cov-2 virus belongs to β - coronavirus, which includes 5 pathogens that can infect human Among the five pathogens, SARS CoV and mers cov are two highly pathogenic coronaviruses Like other coronaviruses, the S-protein homotrimer on the surface of sars-cov-2 plays an important role in receptor binding and virus entry S protein is a class I fusion protein Each S protein is composed of S1 and S2 domains, and the receptor binding domain (RBD) is located in S1 domain Previous studies have shown that, similar to SARS CoV, sars-cov-2 also uses human ACE2 receptor to enter cells Scientists have found many neutralizing antibodies targeting SARS CoV or mers cov RBD Therefore, it is an urgent task to select the neutralizing antibodies targeting at RBD of sars-cov-2 < br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Capital Medical University, China University of science and technology, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, China Agricultural University, Shanxi Institute of higher innovation, China Center for Disease Control and prevention and China Institute of food and drug control expressed sars-cov-2 RBD protein as bait, Specific memory B cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with covid-19 The variable regions encoding the heavy and light chains of the antibody were amplified from different B cells respectively, and then cloned into the pcaggs plasmid vector together with the antibody constant region to produce IgG1 antibody Related research
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