Immunity: New immune cells play a vital role in the immune system's response to respiratory infections
Last Update: 2020-06-17
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, June 9, 2020 /PRNewswire
/ -- An international team of scientists, including scientists from the VIB-UGent Inflammation Research Center, Bart Lambrecht, Martin Guillliams, Hamida Hammad and Charlotte Scott, have discovered a new antigen-presented immune cell that could rewriteimmunologytextbooksThese cells are part of an expanding family of dendritic cells that play a key role in providing antigens to other immune cells in the respiratory viral infection process and may explain how restorative plasma can help improve the immune response in patients infected with the virusinflammation and immunity
when our body is exposed to infection, its response is inflammation and feverThis is a sign that the immune system works and causes many cells to activate, just like soldiers in the armyDendrite cells (DCs) are generals of the armyThey can precisely activate and instruct soldiers to kill infected cells by providing antigens from "intruders" to the cells of the immune systempicture source: Immunitywrong identity
several types of DCs perform antigen presentation in the bodyThe first traditional dendritic cell continuously scans the body for dangerous intruders even if it is not infectedWhen the infection triggers inflammation, another subgroup of dendritic cells is produced from the inflammatory mononucleosisSince mononucleosis cells isolated from human blood are easy to produce in vitro dendritic cells of mononucleocellular origin, these cells have long been considered very important antigen-derived cellsHowever, clinical trials of dendritic
cells using mononucleocyte sustol sources in cancer treatment have begun to disappoint recent research by Bart Lambrecht, Martin Guillliams, Hamida Hammad, Charlotte Scott and their international colleagues suggests that DCs from mononucleocellular sources are not strong antigen-delivered cells, but are mistakenly considered to have a powerful antigen presentation function scientists used single-celled techniques to study mice with viral respiratory infections (mouse pneumonia viruses and influenza viruses) This single-cell resolution allows them to successfully isolate cells from mononucleocys from other dendritic cells in their response to infection They found that dendritic cells from mononucleoblasts did exist, but were not actually antigens All this confusion in the past has been due to the emergence of a similar new DC called inflammatory type 2 conventional DC (inf-cDC2), which combines some of the best characteristics of mononucleosis, macrophages, and conventional DCs to induce the best form of immunity Bart Lambrecht: "It was a huge surprise for us We all know that cells from mononucleocys are good antigen-present cells Now we find that it's actually a new hybrid DC type and it does all the work This really changes our understanding of the immune system and is very important for understanding respiratory viral infections and other inflammatory diseases Martin Guillliams: "It took a lot of team effort, but the power of single-cell sequencing eventually cracked the complex DC code Many of the conflicting discoveries of the past two decades now make more sense This also presents a huge treatment opportunity, as vaccine strategies can now be designed to trigger the formation of inf-cDC2, resulting in a stronger antiviral immune response Charlotte Scott: "By using single-cell technology, we have been able to compare all the discoveries over the past few years and identify the different cell types involved Looking ahead, it will be interesting to see what other inflammatory conditions these inf-cDC2s are produced and how they can become targeted treatments "
image source: recovery plasma and COVID-19
the researchers' findings are also directly related to the current COVID-19 pandemic caused by another respiratory virus An emergency treatment being explored is the use of restorative plasma, the recovery of the patient's plasma "One of the unique features of the new DCs is that they express the functional Fc receptors of the antibodies found in the plasma of PATIENTs with COVID-19," said Cedric Bosteels, lead author of the new paper "
this study for the first time, one of the mechanisms by which the recovery plasma and the virus-specific antibodies in it function is by promoting inf-cDC2s This study provides a new target for the treatment of viral infections and other inflammatory diseases, as protrusion cells can induce a stronger immune response (BioValleyBioon.com) References: Newlynewly discovered cell type plays a key role in the immune response to the the air yston s Immunity 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.04.005
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