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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > Important research results read new advances in the field of gut microbiology!

    Important research results read new advances in the field of gut microbiology!

    • Last Update: 2020-08-01
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    this article, xiao compiled a number of important research results, to jointly interpret the scientists in the field of intestinal microbiology research progress! Share it with everyone!
    Picture Source: The Conversation

    . 1. How do
    intestinal flora interact with the body's brain?

    News Read
    :
    How bacteria in your gut sour and body

    many people know that the gut flora is very important to the health of the body, given the unknown, we may think that the role of the intestinal flora is only related to the body's digestion, but there is now a growing body of research evidence that the body's gut microbes may interact with the body's thoughts and minds in a very significant way, intestinal flora and
    depression
    , anxiety and brain processing of the regions of the brain.

    Bruce R. Stevens, a researcher at the University of Florida, said humans would evolve with the bacteria in the environment that have adapted to long-term survival in the body, and the result is that the body's metabolism, neurons and even the body's physiological functions interact with bacteria present in the body. The researchers believe that human strains and gut flora are a single ecosystem of interactive organisms, human cells and
    bacterial
    cells. The relationship between the gut and brain thinking dates back centuries, and researchers have been discussing how gut flora affects the body's health for years, and it's only recently been published that researchers have begun to slowly understand the link between the two. Studies have shown, for example, that transferring the gut flora in patients

    depression can lead to
    -like behavior of
    depression in mice, and similar mouse studies have revealed that gut flora affects anxiety symptoms in the body.


    Hypertension: A high-salt diet affects gut microbiome

    doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSION.120.14800

    in a recent study, scientists reported that for women with untreated
    high blood pressure
    , reducing salt intake levels is good for both gut microbes and blood pressure. By analyzing blood samples from 145 untreated
    high blood pressure
    adults, the scientists found that, especially in women, the daily sodium intake recommended by organizations such as the American Heart Association (only 2,300 mg) was nearly six weeks later, leading to an increase in indicators of healthy microbiome circulation in the blood. In addition, the patient's blood pressure will be significantly reduced, the smoothness of blood vessels will be significantly improved.

    researchers say there is growing evidence that the microbiome plays a direct role in regulating blood pressure, which is largely influenced by salt intake. The study, published in the journal Bolong, is the first to reveal how a drop in salt intake affects short-chain fatty acids in the blood. Intestinal flora is all
    bacteria
    , viruses, protozoa and fungi that are found in a wide range of functions, from helping to digest food to immune responses to tendencies that affect weight gain. Microbiome problems are associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and allergic reactions. There is growing evidence that a high-salt diet alters the gut microbiome, but there is little data based on the human body.


    Nature: The gut microbiome or prognostic

    of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2288-7

    a recent study published in the international journal Nature, from Harvard University and other institutions By studying a new type of intestinal-brain connection in the neurodegenerative disease myatrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the researchers found that using
    antibiotics
    or fecal transplants to alter the intestinal microbiome or suppress disease symptoms that improve the body.

    research results may help explain why certain individuals carry alS-induced mutations, and microbiome researchers may be able to develop a possible therapeutic approach. Researcher Kevin Eggan said: 'In this study, we focused on the most common mutant genes in the body of ALS patients, and found that the same mouse model (the same
    genetic
    characteristics) may show significantly different health outcomes under different experimental facility conditions;

    4)
    Nature: Obesity is associated with intestinal microbiome disorders, statins can enhance intestinal flora diversity!

    doi: 10.1038/s41586-0269-x

    Recently, a team led by Jeroen Raes (VIB-KU Leuven) and Professor Clement (INSERM) published their first findings in the authoritative journal Nature that identified a common cholesterol-lowering drug, statins, as a potential lymictorial drug. In a paper entitled "Statin therapy with the next metobiota dysbiosis", Jeroen Raes and his colleagues studied the
    of gut
    bacteria in the Metacardis queuing group, which consists of nearly 900 people from three countries (France, Denmark and Germany) with a BMI of 18 to 73/kg. Although the intestinal flora of obese individuals has previously been shown to be different from thin people, Raes's unique experience in quantitative microbiome analysis has given researchers a new insight into the changes in the obesity-related microbiome.

    researchers say that our lab recently discovered a single intestinal microbiome structure (intestinal phenotype) that increases in patients with intestinal inflammation (inflammatory bowel disease), multiple sclerosis, and
    depression
    . We observed that this disorder of the intestinal type is characterized by low bacterial abundance and biodiversity, a significant lack of some anti-inflammatory
    bacterial
    , such as Thefaecalidum. In fact, even in healthy people, we found a gut strain called Bacteroids2, whose carriers had slightly higher levels of inflammation. Since obesity is known to lead to elevated levels of inflammation in the whole body, we speculate that Bact2 is also more common among obesity study participants.


    Cell: The ketone diet changes the gut microbiome and gut immune system

    doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.027

    , in a new study published in cell, researchers from abroad recruited 17 adult overweight or obese non-
    diabetes
    male patients who were hospitalized in metabolic wards for two months, where their diet and exercise levels were carefully monitored and controlled. Highlights of the study include: the ketogenic diet changes the gut microbiome differently than the high-fat diet; part of the changes in the gut microbes caused by the ketogenic diet are driven by the production of ketones in the host body; beta-hydroxybutyric acid selectively inhibits the growth of Bifidobacteria; and the gut microbiome associated with vitamin D lowers levels of th17 cells.

    in the first four weeks of the study, participants were given either a "standard" diet consisting of 50 percent carbohydrate, 15 percent protein and 35 percent fat, or a ketogenic diet consisting of 5 percent carbohydrate, 15 percent protein and 80 percent fat. Four weeks later, the two groups changed their diet, asking the researchers to study how changes between the two diets changed the participants' microbiome.
    photo source:

    . 6)
    Nature: The bile metabolites of intestinal microorganisms can enhance immune cells

    doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2193-0

    a new method by the Ludwig Cancer Research Center (LCR) has found that the colonies in the small intestine can support the production of regulated T cells (Treg) - this
    cells can inhibit autoimmun
    e response and inflammation. Ludwig MSK director Alexander Rudensky led the study and published it in the journal Nature. Studies have shown that a microbial metabolite -- organic acid isoDCA -- promotes the local production of immunosuppressed immune cells in the colon. This locally produced or "peripheral" Treg helps suppress chronic intestinal inflammation, the main cause of colorectal cancer.

    Although the study does nmostly not address cancer prevention, its findings have interesting implications for this area -- that's why the study was funded in part by the Colon Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Initiative Fund, launched in 2015 by the Ludwig and the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. "People have been thinking about using symbiotic microbes to treat colon inflammatory diseases," Rudensky said. "One way to do this is to develop a new drug made up of specific microorganisms that can limit inflammation, promote colon health, and reduce people's risk of colon cancer.
    bacterial
    groups that produce isoDCA and other metabolites can promote the anti-inflammatory activity of colon immune cells, which may be part of these interventions. "

    gut microbes are critical to digestion and metabolism, and they support many other important processes, from immunomodulation to brain development. As an authority on Treg, Rudensky has long explored the cross-dialogue between symbiotic
    bacterial
    and Treg. Treg matures primarily in the thymus, but can also be induced by precursor cells in other tissues, especially the intestines. He has shown that these peripheral Tregs protect beneficial gut microbes from immune attacks and suppress chronic intestinal inflammation.


    Sci Adv: Special molecules may link gut microbiomes to brain function

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aax6328

    , scientists from the University of Glasgow and other institutions have described a new type of molecule that can establish a direct association between the gut microbiome and the brain in a pre-clinical mouse model.

    the study, researchers identified two new bacterial molecules in the intestines and brains of mice, using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI, mass spectrometry imaging) to map the molecules before they spread to different parts of the brain, produced by
    bacteria
    in the gut microbiome. The special molecules found in special areas of the brains of mice have a similar structure to carnitine, a special molecule used to help burn fat to produce energy.

    changes in the gut microbiome are often directly related to a variety of neurological disorders, but current researchers have not found evidence of direct interactions between compounds in the gut microbiome and the brain. Researcher Donal Wall says communication between the gut microbiome and the brain is now thought to play a key role in the body's neurohealth, and the new technology used by the researchers in the article may help clarify the molecular exchange between the gut microbiome and the brain, which may have important biological implications in many diseases.


    JEM: New Discovery! Gut flora or the ability to "sneak" into tumors can help improve the efficiency of anti-cancer immunotherapy

    doi: 10.1084/jem.20192282

    a recent study published in the international journal Journal of Experimental Medicine, scientists from the Southwest Medical Center and the University of Chicago and other institutions found that living in
    bacteria in the gut
    or can accumulate in tumors and improve the therapeutic effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy in mice, and studies have shown that the use of Bifidobacteria to treat cancer patients may enhance their response to CD47 immunotherapy, a widely used anticancer therapy currently being evaluated in a variety of
    clinical trial
    s. CD47 is a protein expressed on the surface of many cancer cells, inhibiting the protein can promote the patient's immune system to attack and destroy
    tumor
    , the antibody targeting CD47 is currently being used in a number of cancer
    clinical trials
    , but studies in laboratory mice tend to produce mixed results, some mice against CD47 therapy can produce a reaction, and some do not respond. Br.
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