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    Home > Food News > Food Articles > Improve water resources management to achieve sustainable development

    Improve water resources management to achieve sustainable development

    • Last Update: 2021-07-24
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Original Title: Improving Water Resources Management to Achieve Sustainable Development (International Perspective)

    Core reading

    Affected by factors such as population growth, pollution and climate change, the pressure of global water shortages is increasing
    .
    According to statistics, in the past 20 years, the global per capita fresh water supply has decreased by more than 20%

    .
    Facing the challenge of water shortage, many countries have carried out successful practices to improve water resources management

    .
    Improving comprehensive water resources management strategies and technologies has become the top priority in solving water resource crises

    .

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently released the "State of Food and Agriculture 2020" report, focusing on the challenges of global water shortages and focusing on improving water efficiency, productivity and sustainability
    .
    The report shows that 3.
    2 billion people worldwide are currently facing water shortages, and about 1.
    2 billion people live in agricultural areas with severe water shortages and water shortages

    .

    "Water is the cornerstone of all sustainable development goals
    .
    " Qu Dongyu, Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, said that irrigated agriculture accounts for more than 70% of the world's total water consumption.
    Agriculture cannot do without water, and the continuation of human livelihood and civilization cannot do without water

    .

    Water shortage seriously threatens food security

    One of the drafters of the report and the senior economist of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Andrea Cataño, told our reporter that in recent years, the pressure on water in various countries has been increasing, which has seriously threatened global food security and fragile water ecosystems.
    Water resources are a key factor for the full realization of the sustainable development goals

    .

    "Through survey statistics, 1.
    2 billion people in global agricultural areas are facing the threat of water scarcity and severe water shortages, and a total of nearly 1 billion hectares of agricultural land are affected

    .
    " Mark Sanchez, Deputy Director of FAO's Agriculture and Food Economics Division, commented This reporter said

    .

    The report shows that if the areas facing greater water pressure and drought frequency are included, the total population of the world affected by water shortages amounts to 3.
    2 billion, and more than 60% of irrigated farmland is highly lacking in water

    .
    It is worth noting that 41% of the world's current irrigation water is at the expense of the environment

    .

    Data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations shows that in Central Asia, North Africa and West Asia, about one-fifth of the people live in agricultural areas where water resources are extremely scarce and scarce
    .
    In the least developed countries and regions, 74% of the rural population does not have access to safe drinking water

    .
    Approximately 50 million people in sub-Saharan Africa live in severely arid areas, and water shortages will have a catastrophic impact on arable land and pasture every three years

    .

    Fu Xiaotian, director of the China Food and Natural Resources Department of the World Resources Institute, said in an interview with our reporter that currently about one-third of the world’s irrigated crops are facing extremely high water pressure.
    According to analysis, by 2040, they will face high or extreme water pressure.
    The area of ​​farmland with high risk of seasonal changes will be more than four times that of 2010

    .

    Multiple factors exacerbate water scarcity

    "The growth of the population has promoted the growth of the demand for water resources, and the human consumption of water is constantly expanding
    .
    " Mark Sanchez said, "Economic development, urbanization and the improvement of people's living standards have not only led to the inclusion of human dietary structure More water-intensive foods such as meat and dairy products also indirectly drive the continuous increase in water demand for industrial, energy and service industries

    .
    "

    According to statistics, as of August 2020, there are 7.
    8 billion people in the world; by 2050, this figure will reach 9.
    7 billion

    .
    As the population continues to grow, the global per capita available fresh water resources continue to decline

    .
    According to data from the World Resources Institute, the current human water consumption is twice that of 1960

    .

    The report shows that the intensified competition for water resources and the impact of climate change are causing tensions and conflicts among stakeholders, which in turn will exacerbate the inequality in access to water resources, and affect vulnerable groups including the rural poor, women and indigenous people.
    The impact is particularly prominent

    .

    Nearly 3/4 of the world's farmland is watered by rain
    .
    Affected by climate change in recent years, changes in rainfall patterns, rising temperatures and accelerated evaporation have resulted in an aggravation of water shortages

    .
    In the 20 years from 1997 to 2017, the per capita renewable water resources in North Africa and West Asia decreased by 41% and 32%, respectively, and the per capita freshwater resources were almost less than 1,000 cubic meters, which was far less than the international water resources of 1,700 cubic meters.
    Tight standards

    .

    At the beginning of 2020, countries such as Chile and the United States suffered severe droughts, which not only caused huge losses in agriculture, but also triggered a substantial decline in surface and groundwater reserves
    .

    In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 80% of farmland adopts low-input rain-fed production mode, and irrigated farmland accounts for only 3%.
    Drought has always been a huge hidden danger faced by local farmers

    .
    Among them, in Eritrea, where more than half of the population is at risk of hunger, two-thirds of its important crop sorghum is still grown in areas with high or extremely high climate change risks

    .

    "Frequent extreme weather has put agriculture under increasing water shortage pressure
    .
    " Mark Sanchez said, "In contrast, irrigated farmland can better deal with sudden or extreme weather, but it needs to draw water from rivers or underground.
    Affecting the amount of water resources for other uses

    .
    The increase in irrigation water is increasing the imbalance between water supply and demand

    .
    "

    Integrated water resources management is imminent

    "This report has sounded the alarm for us.
    To ensure that hunger is eliminated by 2030, we must vigorously solve the problem of water shortages and effectively use limited fresh water and rainwater resources

    .
    Agricultural development needs to face this severe challenge

    .
    " Mark Sanchez said

    .

    The challenges brought about by the shortage of water resources have put forward higher requirements on the strategies and technologies of integrated water resources management in various countries
    .
    The report shows that many countries are facing the dual challenges of rain-fed agriculture and irrigated agriculture with water shortages.
    These countries urgently need to establish a reasonable water resource accounting system, clearly allocate them, adopt modern technologies, and transform to crops that require less water

    .

    "A pricing system that truly reflects the value of water resources can send a clear signal and motivate people to use water efficiently
    .
    To develop effective water resources management and governance strategies, water resources accounting and auditing should be the starting point

    .
    " Mark Mark, Chief Economist of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Simo Torrero said that water resources protection is imminent, and each country needs to take a multi-pronged approach in technology, legal framework, and overall policy environment

    .

    The report proposes that the planning of water resources management should be specific to the problem itself, and be dynamically adjusted and adapted to local conditions, such as investing in water collection and storage facilities in rain-fed areas, and restoring and modernizing sustainable irrigation systems in irrigation areas to increase water use.
    Efficiency, while also improving the sustainable supply of water resources by selecting water-saving crops and improving water resources management tools

    .

    "Improving the efficiency of agricultural water use requires the efforts of more stakeholders.
    For example, financial institutions should increase investment in improving water productivity, scientific research institutions should further develop technologies to improve agricultural efficiency, and consumers can reduce food loss and waste

    .
    " Fu Xiaotian said In addition, increasing the use of unconventional water resources and the recycling of sewage will also benefit the realization of multiple benefits in the environment, resources and economy

    .

    "In recent years, many countries have carried out successful practices to improve water resources management
    .
    In northern China, through the scientific development and utilization of groundwater, the amount of groundwater purchased by farmers is far less than the amount of water taken from their own wells, which improves the natural environment while also improving the natural environment.
    Ensure that crop yields are not affected

    .
    ” Mark Sanchez introduced that in countries such as Cambodia and Sri Lanka, the government encouraged farmers to integrate natural resources and promoted the integration of rice production with fish farming, and achieved good results

    .

    Fu Xiaotian said, “China adopts the most stringent water resources management system, sets the'three red lines' for the development and utilization of water resources, and puts forward phased goals and requirements for total water consumption, water efficiency, and water pollution prevention and control, and adopts Measures such as water resource taxes and water rights transactions have been implemented to improve water resource utilization efficiency and promote the rational allocation and utilization of water resources.
    These experiences are worth learning and learning from other developing countries

    .
    "

    (Report from Rome, December 6th)

    "People's Daily" (version 16 on December 07, 2020)

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