In recent years, scientists have made new progress in the field of miRNA research!
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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< br / > < br / > < br / > miRNA < br / > is a kind of noncoding single stranded RNA with a length of 18-25 nucleotidesIt not only plays an important role in gene expression regulation, but also plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, hematopoiesis and other biological processesA large number of studies have shown that, The expression level of miRNA is closely related to the occurrence and development of a variety of < br / > tumorsIn this paper, the author collates the new achievements that scientists have made in the field of miRNA research in recent years and studies with you! < br / > Image Source: University of New South Wales < br / > < br / >  < br / > NAT commun: miRNA driven cancer occurrence < br / > < br / > doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-14713-2 < br / > < br / / > for a long time, researchers have thought that only one strand of double stranded microRNA can make gene silencingRecently, a new study from Thomas Jefferson University shows that in certain cancer types, two strands of microRNA work together to promote the invasion and growth of cancer cells, which are two signs of poor prognosis of cancer patientsThe researchers said that the coordination of this activity is really surprisingThe two strands of miRNA do not target the same sequence, but nevertheless, we still see their collaborative work; relevant research results are published in the journal Nature communications< br / > < br / > from 5200 cancer patients' samples from 14 kinds of cancer, the researchers found that 26 kinds of microRNA showed an increase or decrease of activity / abundance in many kinds of cancer, and developed a new computational biology method, By analyzing the genes necessary for the survival and growth of cancer cells in 290 cancer cell lines, the effects of two microRNA chains on various cancers were determinedThe researchers also found that microRNA double stranded molecules have a greater effect on driving or inhibiting cancer growth than single stranded miRNA molecules alone< br / > < br / >Scientists from Peking University and other institutions have developed a new type of miRNA disease association prediction tool through research and developmentThe research and test results not only provide a reference for biomedical researchers to select appropriate miRNA disease association prediction factors, but also provide a future direction for the development of more powerful miRNA disease association prediction factorsMicroRNA (miRNA) is about 22nt RNA, which regulates gene expression by targeting the 3 'UTR region of mRNAThese small < br / > non coding RNAs < br / > are widely involved in important biological processes, such as cell division, differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, inflammation and stress responseTherefore, the maladjustment of miRNA, including expression maladjustment, mutation of function acquisition or loss and epigenetic < br / > genetic < br / > silencing, usually plays an important role in the attack and development of many diseases< br / > < br / > based on more than 8000 novel miRNA disease associations from the latest hmddv3.1 database, 36 easy to obtain prediction methods were systematically comparedTheir overall performance is evaluated by rigorous precise recall curve analysis Among them, 13 methods show acceptable accuracy (auprc > 0.200), while the former two methods are expected to reach more than 0.300 The potential for performance improvement was demonstrated by combining different predictors or using the updated miRNA similarity matrix, which increased the auprc by 16% and 46%, respectively, compared with the best single predictor and the predictor using the previous similarity matrix < br / > < br / >  < br / > NAT nanotechnol: using gold coated < br / > nano < br / > particles makes it possible to detect ultra-low levels of miRNA < br / > < br / > doi: 10.1038/s41565-018-0232-x < br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from the University of New South Wales in Australia have developed a new method to detect ultra-low levels of microRNA (microRNA, miRNA) in blood samples, This may enable faster and more effective < br / > diagnosis of < br / > cancer and other diseases They used < br / > nanoparticles < br / > to bind target miRNAs, making them easy to extract One of the main benefits of this method is that it is effective even if the content of miRNA in blood samples is small Before that, more samples are needed to extract similar amount of miRNA The relevant research results have been published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology recently < br / > < br / > as a class of short RNA molecules, miRNA targets some mRNA (the < br / > genetic < br / > substance used to synthesize proteins) to prevent them from encoding specific proteins The damage of miRNA activity is related to the formation and metastasis of cancerous < br / > tumors In this new study, the researchers report using DNA that matches the miRNA they want to test for gold coated magnetic < br / > nano < br / > particles（ Au@MNP ）To modify These nanoparticles are actually dispersible electrodes When circulating in the blood, they capture the target miRNA and then separate the nanoparticles carrying the target miRNA by using magnets < br / >, The Journal of molecular biology and evolution online published the latest research results of the scientists from the Institute of Biochemistry and cell biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences: evolution of an X-linked miRNA family primarily expressed in mamman male germcell; in this work, The researchers showed how a transposon in the genome of marsupials evolved into a highly specific miRNA family during spermatogenesis in placental mammals microRNA (miRNA) plays an essential role in many important biological processes, but little is known about the types, regulation and evolution of small RNA expression in spermatogenesis Wu Ligang's research group isolated and purified spermatogenic cells in several key stages of mouse spermatogenesis, and drew the expression profile of microRNA by using the self-established microRNA deep sequencing technology It is found that miRNA and piRNA are the two main types of microRNAs in mouse spermatogenesis The expression of miRNA and piRNA has a great dynamic change in the whole process of spermatogenesis From spermatogonia < br / > stem cells < br / > to meiosis, the expression of a miRNA family on the X chromosome increased significantly, up to 70% of the total miRNA in the fine line phase, which was named spermir (Spermatogenes is related miRNA family) < br / >! Scientists hope to use miRNA molecules to treat Alzheimer's disease! < br / >, But researchers have been elusive about the treatment of this complex disease Recently, in a research report published in the international journal Acta neuropathologica, scientists from Brigham women's Hospital investigated the function of a special molecule involved in the process of tau protein pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease Researchers focused on the study of miRNAs as a regulator of gene expression, It can bind and destroy the messenger RNAs that encode proteins The researchers found that some miRNAs can show neuroprotective effects By supplementing miRNAs, we may be able to effectively treat tau lesions < br / > < br / > researchers have mainly studied mir-132, which has been shown to be down regulated in Alzheimer's disease and other tau diseases In this paper, researchers have studied rodent models and human neuron cells and found that mir-132 seems to be able to protect them from the damage of toxic β - amyloid protein and tau protein Mir-132 seems to be a major regulator of neuronal cell health, and it can also serve as a new target to help researchers develop new therapies for Alzheimer's disease < br / > Image Source: endehoy.com < br / > < br / >, How this molecule is involved in the progression of colorectal cancer remains unclear Researchers from Dalian Medical University studied the role of lncrna snhg7 in colorectal cancer The results were published in the international academic journal Cell Death & disease < br / > < br / > in this study, the researchers found that the expression of snhg7 was significantly up-regulated in colorectal cancer, especially in some more malignant cases The expression of snhg7 in colorectal cancer cell lines was also significantly higher than that in normal colon cells The results further showed that the overexpression of snhg7 could promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells, but in the absence of snhg7, the invasion and survival of cancer cells were significantly inhibited < br / > < br / >, This study revealed that mir-153 induced by hypoxia stress inhibited angiogenesis of breast cancer by down regulating HIF1 α / VEGFA signaling pathway < br / > Because tumor cells proliferate rapidly and are not regulated, hypoxia microenvironment is easy to appear in solid tumors In order to deal with hypoxia pressure, tumor cells promote tumor angiogenesis by activating HIF1 α / VEGFA signal pathway Therefore, blocking tumor development in the early stage of angiogenesis by targeting this signal pathway can effectively inhibit the growth, invasion and metastasis of solid tumors Mir-153 is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved miRNA molecule, which plays the role of tumor suppressor in many types of tumors Previous studies have found that mifepristone can induce mir-153, thus inhibiting KLF5 transcription factor expression and inhibiting breast cancer < br / > stem cells < br / > However, the mechanism of mir-153 expression in tumor and the function of mir-153 in the regulation of < br / > tumor < br / > cell activity have not been fully understood < br / > Now, in a new study, researchers from the United States, Switzerland and Brazil have identified a way for fat cells to deliver a class of small RNA called microRNA (miRNA), which helps regulate other organs The results are online in nature <br
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