Cancer stem cells are a group of tumor cells thought to promote tumor evolution and are a major stumbling block in tumor treatment. how to target these cells
has been one of the challenges of cancer treatment.
, a new study has revealed the key factors that sustain the "stem cell properties" of cancer stem cells.
CDK1 is a normal protein responsible for regulating the cell cycle, MHCI. is also a normal molecule, the tissue-compatible complex antigen located on the cell surface, so that the immune system responds.
However, in a new study, scientists from the University of Colorado Cancer Center found that a particular group of cancer cells highly expressed both proteins to maintain their stem cell properties.
researchers speculated that these highly expressed MHC I and CDK1 are likely to be at the heart of diseases such as melanoma, pancreatic cancer and colon cancer.
research published in the journal Cancer Research.
1.MHC I, CDK1 high expression: the regulation of tumor cancer stem cells are often able to resist chemotherapy and molecular targeting therapy, is the cancer recurrence, metastasis "seed."
to analyze the key factors in the development of these cells, the team used patient samples, mouse models, and publicly available genetic data to look for genetic/genomic commonalities in cells that can cause melanoma, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer.
when some of the proteins presented by MHC I do not come from the host, the immune system recognizes and attacks these cells.
, most cancer cells avoid immune cells by lowering the MHC.
, however, new research shows that one group of cancer cells can promote the formation of new tumor tissue without lowering MHC I.
, instead, these cells increase the expression of MHC I molecules.
"These cells may have another way to evade the immune system." Mayumi Fajita, a researcher at the
" Cancer Center, speculates.
strange, these cancer cells that retain MHC I molecules may also retain another characteristic of healthy cells, the CDK1 protein. The more CDK1 expression
, the more likely melanoma cells are to produce new tumors.
02. How do I stop cancer stem cells? Why are these two molecules carried? Why does CDK1 control not only cell cycles, but also stem cells? The team found that this involved an unnormal factor: Sox2, a transcription factor that helps embryonic and neural stem cells maintain "stem cell" properties, as well as a known marker of cancer stem cells involved in the development of more than 25 types of cancer.
Although Sox2 is considered a cause of cancer, it remains a difficult target. "We can prove that Sox2 is very important for tumor occurrence, but it's hard to control it,"
," says Mayumi Fajita.
now, new research shows that CDK1 acts directly with Sox2 to maintain the "stem cell" properties of cells.
"If, through this mutual effort, CDK1 can control the function of Sox2, we will hopefully be able to suppress Sox2 by targeting CDK1 or by interacting with Sox2."
," Mayumi Fajita imagines.
more important, MHCI,CDK1 and Sox2 are common in melanoma, colon cancer and pancreatic cancer.
this means that cancer stem cells across cancer types may have the same characteristics. "We can't say that all tumor types have this characteristic, but it's very common," says Mayumi Fajita,
we think this phenotype may be common in melanoma, pancreatic cancer and colon cancer.
", the research team hopes to further clarify the regulatory mechanism of Sox2 by analyzing CDK1, with a view to finding key links that could become targets for new drugs, ultimately preventing The Role of Sox2.
Source: Biological Exploration.