May 29, 2020 Science journal essence
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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< br / >? Let Xiaobian come together< br / > the picture is from the science journal< br / > < br / > 1Science: great progress! The new technology of protein synthesis in vitro can be compared with the natural ribosome in cells < br / > doi:10.1126/science.abb2491;doi:10.1126/science.abb9711 < br / > < br / > many proteins are useful as drugs to treat diseases such as < br / > diabetes < br / > cancer and arthritisThe synthesis of artificial versions of these proteins is a time-consuming process that requires genetic modification of microorganisms or other cells to produce the desired proteins< br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of technology developed a new technology that can significantly reduce the time required to produce synthetic proteinsTheir desktop automatic flow synthesis machine can connect hundreds of amino acids together in a few hoursThey believe their new technology could speed up the manufacture of on-demand drugs and the development of new drugs, and allow scientists to design artificial proteins by adding amino acids that do not exist in cellsThe relevant research results were published in the Science Journal on May 29, 2020The title of the paper is "synthesis of proteins by automated flow chemistry"< br / > < br / > Brad pentelute, associate professor of chemistry at MIT, the corresponding author of the paper, said, "you can design new protein variants with excellent biological functions, which can be achieved by using unnatural amino acids or specific modificationsWhen you use natural molecular instruments to make proteins, this is impossible." < br / > < br / > in this paper, the researchers show that they can chemically produce multiple protein chains up to 164 amino acids, including enzymes and growth factorsFor these synthetic proteins, they have carried out a detailed analysis, showing that their functions are similar to those of natural protein counterparts< br / > doi:10.1126/science.aau7187;doi:10.1126/science.abb9122 < br / >Once the patient eats, the blood sugar will rise, and they can use the app on the smartphone to trigger the electrical signal, or they can configure the app in advance If they eat the food in advance, the application achievement will automatically trigger the electrical signal After a while, the cells release the necessary amount of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels < br / > < br / > this may sound like science fiction, but it could soon become a reality Now, in a new study, researchers from Zurich Federal Institute of technology, Basel University, East China Normal University and West Lake University in Switzerland introduced the prototype of the implant they developed Their research is the first to study how to use electrical signals to directly activate and regulate gene expression When their method was tested on mice, they confirmed that it was very effective The relevant research results were published in the Science Journal on May 29, 2020 The title of the paper is "electrical cellular insulin release for real-time glycemic control in type 1 diabetic mice" The corresponding author is Dr Martin fussenegger, Professor of biotechnology and Bioengineering, Department of Bioscience and engineering, Federal Institute of technology, Zurich < br / > < br / > these researchers have extensive experience in developing gene networks and implants that respond to specific physiological conditions such as high blood lipid levels or low blood sugar levels Although such gene networks respond to biochemical stimuli, they can also be controlled by alternative, exogenous factors, such as light "We've wanted to use electricity to directly control gene expression for a long time; now we've finally succeeded," fussenegger said < br / > < br / > 3 Science: Chinese scientists have revealed the mechanism of cytotoxic lymphocytes causing cell scorch in target cells < br / > doi:10.1126/science.aaz7548; doi:10.1126/science.abc2502 < br / > < br / > in a new study, Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, the National Institutes of life sciences, Tsinghua University, the PLA General Hospital, Peking University and the Institute of biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported that NK cells and CTL kill gsdmb positive cells by the way of cell scorching This killing effect is due to the fact that gzma produced by lymphocytes cleaves gsdmb domains, thus activating the perforation activity of gsdmb Interferon - γ (IFN - γ) up regulated the expression of gsdmb and promoted the cell scorching In addition, gsdmb is highly expressed in some tissues, especially in gastrointestinal epithelium and its derived tumors The introduction of gsdmb, which can be cut by gzma, into mouse cancer cells can promote tumor clearance in mice These results confirm that gasdermin mediated apoptosis is a cytotoxic lymphocyte killing mechanism, which may enhance the anti-tumor < br / > immune response The related research results were recently published in the journal Science The title of the paper is "granzyme A from cytoxic lymphocytes cleaves gsdmb to trigger pyretosis in target cells" The pro-inflammatory properties of < br / > < br / > cell scorch suggest that this type of lymphocyte killing effect is immunogenic and can improve the immune response The presence of gsdmb in a variety of healthy tissues, especially in the digestive system, suggests that in addition to cancer, this gzma-gsdmb axis may also play an important role in the immune response to microbial infection Gzma showed lower cytotoxicity in vitro, but showed greater proinflammatory activity in vitro This seemingly contradictory phenomenon seems to be well explained by the discovery in this study that gsdmb is required for gzma mediated cell pyrolytic killing, but gsdmb is not expressed in cells previously used to study gzma Moreover, IFN - γ can activate gsdmb expression, which also supports the function of gsdmb in cytotoxic lymphocyte mediated killing This provides new insights into the role of IFN - γ in the immune response to < br / > tumors and other diseases < br / > < br / > importantly, this study found that gsdmb acts on the downstream of granzyme, which highlights that protein lyases such as caspase and granzyme are not cell death executor proteins in essence Instead, these enzymes cut a variety of downstream substrates, including gasdermin, which can then initiate specific cell death processes Target cells expressing multiple death executors may react differently to the same protein cleavage activity, such as that of granzyme This suggests that different target cells may experience different types of cell death even when they are similarly recognized by the same type of cytotoxic lymphocytes Therefore, in the future, the study of lymphocyte mediated immune response should pay more attention to death execution related events in target cells, rather than cell surface molecules, such as PD-1 < br / > < br / > 4 Full text compilation! Dutch scientists published science papers comparing the pathogenesis of covid-19, mers and SARS in non-human primate models < br / > doi:10.1126/science.abb7314; doi:10.1126/science.abc6141 < br / > < br / > two reports on lung histology of three patients with covid-19 showed bilateral diffuse alveolar injury (DAD), pulmonary edema and hyaline membrane formation, This indicates the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and characteristic multinucleated giant cells in the alveoli, which is similar to the investigation results during the outbreak of SARS CoV in 2002 / 2003 The pathogenesis of SARS CoV infection has previously been studied in non-human primate models (cynomolgus monkeys), in which older animals are more susceptible to the disease < br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from several research institutions in the Netherlands described the characteristics of sars-cov-2 infection in cynomolgus monkeys and compared it with the historical data of mers cov infection and SARS CoV infection The related research results were published online in the journal Science on April 17, 2020 The title of the paper is "comparative pathway of covid-19, mers, and SARS in a nonhuman primary model" < br / > < br / > they found that cynomolgus monkeys were more sensitive to sars-cov-2 infection, had long-term exfoliative virus, and showed diseases similar to covid-19 In this non-human primate model, sars-cov-2 is effectively replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the whole respiratory tract (including the nasal cavity, bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli) The virus replication in the upper respiratory tract is consistent with the effective transmission between hosts, while the virus replication in the lower respiratory tract is consistent with the production of lung diseases A thorough comparison of SARS-CoV, mers-cov and sars-cov-2 infection in this model may reveal the key pathways in the pathogenesis of these emerging viruses This new study provides a new infection model that is essential to assess and approve prevention and treatment strategies for human sars-cov-2 infection, as well as to assess the efficacy of re-use of species-specific existing therapies such as pegylated interferon < br / > < br / > 5 Science: invasion of alien plants will reduce carbon sequestration < br / > doi:10.1126/science.aba2225; doi:10.1126/science.abc3587 < br / > In a multifactor experiment in New Zealand, Waller et al found that alien plants accelerated the loss of carbon in the soil by interacting with invertebrate herbivores and soil biota They built 160 micro ecosystems in the wild, manipulating interactions between plants, invertebrates and soil biota Key biological and abiotic responses were measured to quantify the relative contributions and interactions of each community component, thus revealing the potential of invasive plants to influence and inhibit carbon sequestration through biological interactions < br / > < br / > 6 Science: synthetic bryozosin 3 < br / > doi:10.1126/science.abb7271 < br / > < br / > bryostatin family in marine natural products has been explored for various drug applications, but their acquisition is still challenging Their general structure consists of a large ring, which contains three smaller six membered rings Bryostatin 3 is characterized by the addition of a fourth fused lactone ring, which makes it more complex Trost et al Reported the aggregation and synthesis of this complex molecule Three major fragments were spliced together by alkyne coupling reaction, and its stereochemistry was set by asymmetric dihydroxylation and propionylation reaction < br / > < br / > 7 Science: scientists in China have found that cats are more likely to be infected with sars-cov-2 than dogs doi:10.1126/science.abb7015; doi:10.1126/science.abc6141 < br / > < br / > scientists in China have found that cats may be infected with covid-19 coronavirus and may spread to other cats, but dogs are not really susceptible to infection The team from the Harbin Institute of veterinary medicine also concluded that chickens, pigs and ducks were less likely to be infected with the virus < br / > < br / > other scientists say the findings are interesting, but cat owners shouldn't be panicking yet Linda Saif, a virologist at Ohio State University in Worcester, said the results were based on
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