Natural products are a great source of drug development, such as yew alcohol, etoposide, magpie, Changchun new alkali and many other natural drugs have successfully entered the clinical application.
bamboo is an evergreen fruit tree grown in a tropical climate, distributed in Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and southern China, and its peel is a good medicine for infection, trauma and diarrhoea.
recent research shows that the bamboo peel contains a large number of oxycodone-like compounds, with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant and other activities.
α-mangostin (Figure I A) is a representative oxycodone-like compound in mountain bamboo, and the study confirms that it has significant effects in inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and inducing tumor apoptosis.
, for example, a recent study showed that α-mangostin can achieve anti-liver cancer by stabilizing SHP1 to suppress the STAT3 path.
Figure α-mangostin structure and its anti-liver cancer cell research (pictured from reference source 1) As shown in Figure I, α-mangostin has shown some inhibition of liver cancer cells such as SK-Hep-1, hepg2, huh7 and smmc-7721 at the level of insotroviral cell activity (Figure B, C, D, E).
and in association with Sorrafenib can improve Sorrafinib's tumor suppression (Figure I F).
further research confirms that α-mangostin can make liver cancer cells stay more in G2 stage, can induce liver cancer cell apoptosis, and that α-mangostin can reduce STAT3 phosphorylation, reduce Bcl2, Survivin, Cyclin D1, c-Myc and other genes.
Figure 2 α-mangostin tumor suppression experiment (pictured from Reference Source 1) At the same time, the researchers confirmed that the α-mangostin tumor suppression experiment significantly inhibited tumor growth relative to the control group (Figure 2).
, the anti-tumor mechanisms α-mangostin, which have been confirmed by research, consist of five main ones, including: 1. Induced apoptosis: apoptosis is a program of cell death, mainly including the pathway of death of the subject and mitochondrial pathway, studies have shown that α-mangostin can increase the bax expression of colon cancer cells to activate the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway;
studies have confirmed that α-mangostin can reduce the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by inhibiting erK phosphorylation, thereby blocking tumor invasion and metastasis; EMT) is an important process of tumor invasion and migration, and studies have shown that α-mangostin inhibits cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting EMT in the MG-63 cell line of osteosarcoma;
has now been shown that α-mangostin can induce G1 blocking of the pancreatic cancer cell cycle by lowering the expression in cyclin D1 in the PI3K/Akt pathway, and α-mangostin can induce p16INK4a, activate the p38MAPK kinase pathway and lower Bmi-1, resulting in colon cancer HCT116 cell cycle blocking; 4. Inhibition of vascular proliferation: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into new blood vessels, closely related to tumor vascular growth.
studies have shown that α-mangostin inhibits VEGF downstream VEGFR2, ERK1/2 pathps, thereby inhibiting VEGF-induced endosperial cell proliferation, migration, and vascular formation in retinal endodermic cells;
unlike apoptosis, autophagy cell death is associated with the formation and expansion of autophagy membranes by two ubigan-like protein systems, LC3 and ATG12, rather than relying on caspase, during which there is no apoptosis small body formation and nucleal changes.
studies have shown that α-mangostin can significantly increase the level of lc-3ii expression in chronic myeloid leukemia cells, suggesting that α-mangostin can induce autophagy in cancer cells.
α mangostin, a natural drug molecule, has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo for its exact anti-tumor effect, drug development is of great value.
with α further research on pharmacophysics, toxicology, and pharmacodynamics, α-mangostin is bound to do more in drug applications.
references: 1. Anticancer activity of dietary xanthone α-mangostin against hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibition of STAT3 signaling via stabilization of SHP1,2020； Research progress on the antitumour mechanism of α-Mangostin,2019.