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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Study of Nervous System > 【Nature Sub-Journal】Can the human microglia atlas guide brain disease research?

    【Nature Sub-Journal】Can the human microglia atlas guide brain disease research?

    • Last Update: 2022-01-26
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    This article was originally written by Translational Medicine.
    Please indicate the source when reprinting

    .

    Some of these differences may alter the genetic activity of human microglia in the brain, found in a study led by scientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
    .

    The research was led by Dr.
    Katia de Paiva Lopes, Dr.
    Gijsje Snijders, and Dr.
    Jack Humphrey, who work in the laboratory of Dr.
    Towfique Raj, focusing on neuroscience

    .

    The researchers analyzed thousands of microglia in different brain regions in patients who had been diagnosed with various psychiatric disorders and deceased patients with neurodegenerative diseases
    .

    Their findings, published in Nature Genetics, titled "Genetic analysis of the human microglial transcriptome across brain regions, aging and disease pathologies," suggest how microglia may play a key role in certain brain diseases.
    perspectives, but also provide potential and valuable guidance for future research

    .

    https:// In normal brain tissue, microglia are highly branched, with tertiary and quaternary branching structures, and intercellular branching Overlaps are rare
    .

    Branched microglia are often referred to as "resting microglia"
    .

    In vivo studies have found that resting-state microglia make direct contact with neuronal synapses approximately once an hour, and microglia monitor the functional status of synapses through their contacts
    .

    Thus, under normal conditions, highly branched quiescent microglia provide a highly dynamic and efficient monitoring system for the brain
    .

    When inflammation, infection, trauma or other neurological disease occurs in the brain, microglia are rapidly activated and acquire phagocytic function
    .

    The morphological changes of microglia reflect the activation state of microglia, and the activation state of microglia is closely related to the severity of the damaged part in the brain
    .

    After microglia were first discovered, scientists believed that these cells acted both as the brain's infection-fighting immune system and as a clean-up system
    .

    They also believe that microglia play a strictly reactive rather than pathogenic role in brain disease
    .

    But recently this view has begun to change
    .

    Experiments in rodents suggest that microglia may actively shape how the brain is wired
    .

    Meanwhile, genomic studies have identified a potential link between microglia and certain DNA sequences and the risk of developing a variety of brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis
    .

    In this study, scientists used advanced genomic techniques to delve into the many roles that microglia may play in the brain
    .

    To do this, they created the largest and most comprehensive high-resolution microglia genome map of its kind
    .

    They obtained a total of 255 samples representing four different brain regions from 100 donors at the Netherlands Brain Bank and the Brain Bank Research Center for Neuropathology at Mount Sinai Hospital
    .

    The average age of the donors was about 73, with an age range of 21 to 103
    .

    Ninety-six of the samples were from control donors, while the rest were from donors diagnosed with neurological or psychiatric disorders
    .

    The experimental results support both previous findings and new ones
    .

    It was found that the gene activity of microglia varies with age or brain region, validating the notion that the role of microglia may vary in the brain and at different stages of life, and aging also Changes the activity of genes related to the immune system
    .

    The results also found evidence that microglia may be involved in some cases of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as links to other diseases, including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
    .

    Finally, the researchers identified two new genes that may be involved in brain disorders
    .

    A gene called USP6NL has been linked to Alzheimer's disease, while another called P2RY12 has been linked to Parkinson's disease
    .

    The construction of the map enables a comprehensive understanding of the roles that microglia play in both health and disease states
    .

    Reference: https://medicalxpress.
    com/news/2022-01-human-microglial-atlas-brain-disorder.
    html Note: This article aims to introduce the progress of medical research and cannot be used as a reference for treatment plans

    .

    For health guidance, please go to a regular hospital for treatment
    .

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