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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > never expected! Science: The relationship between the intestinal immune system and nutrition is so close!

    never expected! Science: The relationship between the intestinal immune system and nutrition is so close!

    • Last Update: 2021-03-27
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    The intestine is the largest cell ecosystem, helping the body obtain nutrients from the environment.

    The intestine of mammals includes the small intestine, large intestine, and rectum, and a lot of work is done in the small intestine.

    In constant contact with the outside world, the small intestine is not only the entrance to life-threatening pathogens and toxins, but also a place to absorb life-sustaining nutrients.

    In order to cope with the complex and ever-changing environment, the small intestine "will not refuse", it is necessary to balance nutrient absorption and take into account the host's defense function.

    Moreover, it is a real "007" work system (0:00 to 0:00 the next day, 7 days a week without rest).

    For carnivores and herbivores, they have different digestive systems and have adapted to their special diets.
    For omnivores with the most complex systems, how does the complex work of the small intestine work? In a new study published in Science on March 19, Beijing time, a research team led by Yale University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) explained the role of the intestinal immune system in these key processes.
    Core role: Not only to resist pathogens, but also to regulate the intake of nutrients.

    Unexpectedly! The relationship between the immune system and nutrition is so close.

    This research lays the foundation for understanding how this interaction works, and it also opens up new possibilities for the development of combating obesity and diabetes.

    That is to say, for omnivores, the two tasks of balanced nutrient absorption and host defense function in the small intestine are extremely difficult, because the diet changes every day, every season, and the time scale of development.

    This diverse diet is in sharp contrast to carnivores and herbivores.

    Although omnivores’ gastrointestinal tissues have evolved a fixed form of adaptability to promote the effective absorption of nutrients in a restrictive diet, they must continue to adapt to changes from different food sources throughout their lives, including and ingested Encounters of toxins, enteric pathogens and symbiotic microorganisms.

    Therefore, the omnivorous lifestyle has to allow the gastrointestinal tract to dynamically adapt to these changes.

    In this study, the researchers studied how the enzymes and transporters involved in the digestion and absorption of macronutrients are regulated by diet.

    They designed special animal diets that differ only in the ratio of protein and carbohydrates, and evaluated the changes in gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract and the metabolism of the whole body after the mice fed these diets.

    Previous studies on intestinal defenses against parasites and microbial pathogens have shown that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and lymphocytes coordinate tissue responses to intestinal infections.

    Based on these findings, the researchers speculate that the regulation of nutrient processing mechanisms may involve coordination between tissue-resident lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells.

    In addition, studies have shown that the remodeling of intestinal epithelial cells occurs during the reaction to certain infections, which may also be the basis for their adaptation to different nutrients.

    The researchers found that mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet exhibited specific changes in the frequency of intestinal epithelial cell subpopulations.

    This indicates that there are functional specializations in intestinal cells, and carbohydrate transcription induces intestinal epithelial remodeling.

    After only 5 days of feeding mice on a high-carbohydrate diet, epithelial remodeling occurred rapidly.

    Unexpectedly, this process involves a specific set of immune cells, γδ T cells.

    γδT cells are a group of lymphocytes enriched on the surface of the barrier.
    They have anti-infection and anti-tumor effects.
    They are well-known for defending the host barrier, but their biological mechanisms are still unknown.

    Researchers also discovered that a specific immune system signaling molecule called interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a key role in fighting bacterial pathogens, such as those that cause food poisoning.

    When pathogens are present, IL-22 also seems to prevent the absorption of certain nutrients in the digestive system.

    In a series of experiments, the researchers found that γδT cells can inhibit the expression of IL-22 in mice and enable epithelial cells to activate digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters.

    This new study demonstrates the role of intestinal lymphocytes in regulating tissue responses to dietary nutrition and shows that lymphocyte-epithelial circuits and epithelial remodeling represent general characteristics of the intestinal tract adapting to environmental changes.

    By linking nutrition and barrier functions at the cellular and molecular levels, these adaptations enable this complex organization to adjust the balance between nutrient absorption and host defenses in response to environmental changes.

    In addition, because bacterial infections can lead to the expression of IL-22 and inhibit nutrient absorption, the results of this study also provide new insights into the malnutrition of the population in some underdeveloped areas.

    In addition, this research also provides a new way to combat high-incidence metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

    Link to the paper: https://science.
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