Optimization of key factors in microbial fermentation feed production
Last Update: 2020-06-20
Search more information of high quality chemicals, good prices and reliable suppliers, visit
microbial fermentation feed is a kind of beneficial microorganisms using lactic acid bacteria, yeast, erythropoietin spores and other beneficial microorganisms to one or more feed raw materials for anaerobic or aerobic fermentation, improve the utilization of feed raw materials nutrients, eliminate antitropcal factors, while beneficial microorganisms a large number of reproduction, enrichment, functional primary, secondary metabolites mass generation of a new type of fermented biological feedIn recent years, with the rapid development of biotechnology, the deepening of intestinal micro-ecological research and recognition, fermented feed in animal husbandry applications more and more extensive, its yield, quality has been significantly increased and improvedHowever, compared with other fermented products such as amino acids, antibiotics and other fermented products, the added value of fermented feed is still low, most of the employees have no fermentation professional background, how to further reduce production costs, to meet the different growth stages of animals product segmentation and specific nutritional needs is an important development direction of fermentation feed in the futureat present, the research on fermentation feed at home and abroad mainly focuses on the type of fermentation strain, physiological function and feeding effect, but the lack of research on the scientific nature of fermentation matrix selection and the analysis of the active ingredients of many metabolic substances fermented has become a barrier to the further development of microbial fermentation feedTherefore, the author will focus on the study of water, temperature, energy and protein and other key factors on the impact of fermentation feed production, optimize the selection of them, and the fermentation process of the changes in the nutrient composition of the determination and analysis, in order to reduce the production costs of fermented feed, for the breakdown of its products, different fermentation stages of the nutritional composition to provide a theoretical basis, and finally the production technology of fermented feed to production practice1 material smaterials and methods1.1 materialsfermentation strains: composite fermentation preparations, containing lactic acid bacteria, yeast and bacillus grass spores, mainly lactic acid bacteria, the total number of bacteria 108 / g, provided by a Beijing companymedium: MRS medium (lactic acid bacteria), YPD medium (yeast), LB medium (dry bacillus medium)fermentation equipment and ways: with one-way exhaust breathing valve PE membrane seal packaging, raw material fermentation, bag volume 2kg; Thetrial was conducted in The Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Biotechnology in Fujian Province in February-July 20151.2 method1.2.1 fermentation material composition on the fermentation effectformula 1 (conventional feed) composition (dry matter content): rice bran 13.0%, cassava powder 9%, corn meal 37.5%, bran 15.0%, cotton meal 23.0%, composite multi-dimensional 1.0%, brown sugar 1.5%formula 2 (high sugar feed) consisting (dry matter content): rice bran 13.0%, cornflour 42.5%, bran 15.0%, cotton meal 12.5%, composite multi-dimensional 1.0%, corn pulp 16%formula 3 (high protein feed) composition (dry matter content): soybean meal 52.0%, corn protein powder 20.0%, bran 13.0%, peanut meal 4.0%, corn germ 7.0%, compound multi-dimensional 1.0%, lysine 1.0%, erythema 2.0%the proportion of brown sugar in each formula is stirred and dissolved with 37 degrees C warm water, mixed with 0.1% of the total material, mixed with other raw materials, the water content is finally controlled in 35% to 36%, loaded into a fermentation bag for sealed fermentation (raw material sealed fermentation), fermentation temperature of 30 degrees C, fermentation 12h after every 12h sampling to determine the effect of its lactocini and pH, analysis of the effect of different fermentation materials the fermentation process of the bacteria content, nutrient changes complex, because the fermentation process is the result of the co-action of the bacteria, which is mainly lactic acid bacteria, so finally selected to the total bacteria content and pH change as an indicator to investigate the fermentation effect 1.2.2 fermentation material moisture content, temperature on the fermentation effectofeffect under formula 1 (conventional feed) conditions, set the control of fermentation material water content of 24% to 40%, 30 degrees C raw material sealed fermentation 7 days, from the 3rd day to sample to determine its total bacterial content and pH, analysis of the effect of different water content on fermentation effect in formula 1 (conventional feed), selected optimal fermentation material water content conditions, in summer, spring, winter warehouse environment temperature for raw material sealfermentation fermentation, corresponding fermentation temperature and sampling time are: summer 25 to 35 degrees C, fermentation 7 days, sampling 1 time per day; The total bacteria content and pH of each sample sample were also measured to analyze the effect of different ambient temperatures on fermentation effect 1.2.3 fermentation process strain growth, nutrient change analysis in formula 1 (conventional feed), selected optimal fermentation material moisture content, summer 25 to 35 degrees C warehouse ambient temperature, fermentation 8 days, regular sampling, determination of sampling time The content of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and yeast and the content of the main produced lactic acid, and the changes of pH, water, fiber, energy, protein, amino acids, vitamins, isothocyanate and other indicators in the fermentation process were analyzed, and the test was repeated 3 times, taking the average Samples in addition to lactic acid bacteria, protein concentration, vitamin content, etc need to be the same, the remaining samples are as is 70 to 75 degrees C dry inglion after more than 100 sieve to be used 1.2.4 indicators to determine the analysis method the content of micro-organisms and total bacteria: flat-scale method; pH: Mettler FE.20pH meter measurement; moisture: 105 degrees C oven drying, GB/T6435-2006; energy: KT-R4300 automatic heat meter measurement, ISO831:198 fiber measurement; GB/T6434-2006; crude protein determination: Tecator 1035 automatic nitrogen dating meter, GB/T6432-1994; isothiocyanate: gas chromatography, GB/T13087-91; vitamin and amino acid assay using Isuzu LC-20AHPLC detection; lactic acid dehydrogenase method, a reagent box purchased in Nanjing 2 results and analysis 2.1 fermentation material composition on the fermentation effect results different fermentation material composition on fermentation effect as shown in Figure 1, in 3 different formulations, the growth curve and pH changes of the strain are basically the same At the beginning of fermentation, the strain grew in large numbers, the main fermentation strain lactic acid bacteria secreted lactic acid, pH decreased; The growth rate of the high-sugar formula 2 of its strains was significantly higher than that of the other 2 groups, and the high sugar content of its corn pulp provided a lot of energy for the growth of the strain The growth rate of the high protein formula 3 of its strains was significantly smaller than that of the other 2 groups, indicating that the growth rate of microorganisms decreased with the increase of protein content However, in the actual breeding of livestock and poultry, the growth of livestock and poultry not only need a sufficient amount of live bacteria, at the same time a certain concentration of protein is also necessary, comprehensive consideration, formula 1 protein content and sugar content is moderate, more beneficial to the growth of fermented strains and meet the needs of livestock and poultry growth protein 2.2 fermentation material moisture content, temperature on the fermentation effect of the results different fermentation material water content, temperature on the fermentation effect of the results shown in Figure 2-5, the results show that: the higher the moisture content of the material, the faster the growth of the strain, the better the fermentation effect, but in practice operation, the higher the moisture content, the higher its packaging, transportation, maintenance and other operating costs, the lower the market acceptance Figure 2 shows that when the water content is 32% to 40%, the total bacteria content is not much difference, therefore, considering the selection of 34% to 36% as the most suitable water content, not only to ensure the rapid growth of strains, but also to reduce the production and operation costs 3 to 5 results show that the temperature has an important influence on the growth of fermented strains, the higher the temperature, the faster the growth of the strain, the more time it takes for fermentation to mature Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 5 days of fermentation in summer, 12 days in spring and 18 days in winter, the total number of bacteria of the fermentation strain reached a balance of 2.20 x 109/g, and the material pH4.0 to 4.1 2.3 fermentation process strain growth and lactic acid production changeanalysis analysis fermentation 8 days, the growth of its strain and lactic acid production changes as shown in Figure 6 to 7, the fermentation strain is composed of lactic acid bacteria, yeast, souroxss, but the growth time and speed of each strain is different In the closed bag fermentation process, 36h before fermentation, fermentation bag containing residual oxygen for yeast and sph spores growth, large-scale reproduction, lactic acid bacteria basically do not grow, lactic acid production is very small Fermentation 96h, the oxygen in the fermentation bag gradually exhausted, yeast and spore spores basically no longer grow, the number reached a peak, 5.14 x 107, 4.05 x 108 / g, respectively Under the condition of anaerobic environment, lactic acid bacteria began to grow in large quantities and began to produce large quantities of lactic acid Fermentation 144h, fermentation tends to mature, lactic acid bacteria growth reached a peak of 1.86 x 109 / g, lactic acid content up to 0.89% Subsequently, with the production of a large number of lactic acid, lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus spores are no longer suitable for growth, some strains began to lysis, the total number of bacteria decreased The change curve of the total number of bacteria in Figure 6 is consistent with the change curve of lactic acid bacteria, which shows that the fermentation process is mainly lactic acid bacteria, and the growth of yeast and sourspores provides anaerobic environment for lactic acid bacteria 2.4 fermentation process nutritional change analysis the fermentation process energy, water, isothiocyanate change analysis as shown in Figure 8-9, with the extension of fermentation time, the material can be improved, fiber, isothiothocyanate content slowly decreased, water and protein content slightly increased The reason may be yeast anaerobic fermentation, the production of CO2 and ethanol, CO2 can overflow from the pores, the total weight of the material decreased, the water, protein content is relatively increased, the material can always be relatively lower; The increase of moisture and protein content in fermented feed, the production of ethanol, and the reduction of fiber and isothocyanate content have certain benefits for reducing the harm caused by animal feeding and improving the palatability of livestock and poultry feed The analysis of vitamin changes in the fermentation process of is shown in Figure 10, and the order of each vitamin content in the fermentation feed is: VB and gt; VE and gt; VK and gt; VA and gt; VD, different fermentation time, the vitamin content is basically stable, to the relative balance of degradation and synthesis fermentation process, the amino acid content is basically unchanged, only 4 amino acids have changed more obviously, as shown in Figure 11, glutamate, proline content slowly decreased, glycine, phenylalanine content slowly increased, indicating that livestock growth essential amino acid content increased, the amino acid composition in the fermented feed in the direction of high quality conversion 3 Conclusions This study optimizes the key factors in the production of fermented feed, such as water, temperature, energy and protein, and the changes of nutrients in the fermentation process is determined and analyzed, the results show that: high sugar, low protein feed formula, 34% to 36% water content, high fermentation temperature is more conducive to strain production and actual production needs Yeast and bacillus spores fermentation began first, its large number of growth for lactic acid bacteria to provide anaerobic environment, with the extension of time, fermentation 144h, the growth of each strain reached a peak During fermentation, lactic acid, ethanol and other substances are produced, water and protein content increases, fiber, isococyanide content is reduced, vitamin content is dynamic ally stable, amino acid quality transformation Therefore, fermented feed is beneficial to improve the intestinal balance, palatability and safety of livestock and poultry breeding 4 discussion At present, the application and theoretical research of microbial fermentation feed in livestock and poultry breeding at home and abroad have achieved some results, but the effective components of many metabolites of fermented feed lack a more in-depth study, while the problem of product stability caused by raw materials, fermentation strains, preservation and other problems of fermented feed needs to be further solved therefore, the author of the key factors of fermentation production, fermentation process growth changes, fermentation process of the nutritional composition of the change of the in-depth analysis is very necessary, to reduce production costs, to meet the different growth stage of livestock and poultry growth product segmentation and specific nutritional needs, for the future to improve the fermentation feed quality identification, establish industry standards, promote the further research and development of microbial fermentation feed have an important reference basis In addition, the source, type and mechanism of fermentation strains are very important to the selection of animal species and added dose strains for fermented feed The author discusses the mechanism of synergy between the fermentation strains, and analyzes the growth order and interaction of each strain, but its stability, tolerance, antagonism, beneficial strain variability and the intestinal planting site of the fermented strain in livestock and poultry, the mechanism needs further in-depth study, and is also an important direction for the fermentation feed to be solved and explored in the future Source:
This article is an English version of an article which is originally in the Chinese language on echemi.com and is provided for information purposes only.
This website makes no representation or warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, completeness ownership or reliability of
the article or any translations thereof. If you have any concerns or complaints relating to the article, please send an email, providing a detailed
description of the concern or complaint, to firstname.lastname@example.org
. A staff member will contact you within 5 working days. Once verified, infringing content
will be removed immediately.