Chemical packaging, storage and transportation
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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< br / > because a considerable part of chemicals are inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive and other dangerous characteristics, in the process of packaging, transportation and storage, if handled improperly, it is very easy to cause accidents, light will affect production, cause economic losses, heavy will cause casualties, and seriously pollute the environmentWith the increase of chemical output and the expansion of the scope of use, more and more accidents and hazards of chemicals occur due to improper packaging, storage and transportationTherefore, a comprehensive understanding of the packaging, storage and transportation of chemicals is of great significance to strengthen the safety management of chemicals and avoid major disasters< br / > 1.1 chemical packaging < br / > packaging of industrial products is an indispensable part of modern industryA product from production to the user's hands, generally through multiple loading and unloading, storage, transportation processIn this process, the product will inevitably be impacted, dropped, impacted and vibratedA good packaging will protect the product well, reduce the damage in the transportation process, and make the product reach the user's hands safelyThis is particularly important for hazardous chemicalsIf the packaging method is proper, the accident rate in storage and transportation will be reducedOtherwise, major accidents may be causedFor example, in January 1997, there was a serious chlorine leakage accident in PakistanWhen a truck was transporting bottled chlorine, due to the turbulence of the vehicle, the liquid chlorine cylinder was severely impacted, causing the cylinder body to break, resulting in a large number of chlorine leakage, resulting in many deaths and poisoning accidentsAfter the inspection, the cylinder material is not in conformity with the requirements seriously, thus leaving a hidden danger for the transportation safetyOn the contrary, in the early morning of March 18, 1997, a large truck loaded with 1 ton and 200 barrels of highly toxic sodium cyanide was turned into Guijiang River in Guizhou cityDue to the tight packing, timely salvage and no damage to the packing, a serious leakage pollution accident was avoidedTherefore, chemical packaging is the basis of chemical storage and transportation safetyTherefore, all departments and enterprises pay more and more attention to the packaging of hazardous chemicals, improve the packaging of hazardous chemicals, develop new packaging materials, and improve the packaging quality of hazardous chemicals The state has also constantly strengthened the supervision of packaging and formulated a series of relevant standards to make the packaging of chemicals more standardized < br / > 1.1.1 packaging classification and packaging performance test < br / > according to the packaging structure strength, protection performance and the risk degree of the contents, the packaging of dangerous goods is divided into three categories: < br / > class I packaging: the goods have greater risk and the packaging strength requirements are high; < br / > class II packaging: the goods have medium risk and the packaging strength requirements are high; < br / > class III packaging: the goods have less risk, The packaging strength requirements are general < br / > General technical conditions for transport packaging of dangerous goods (gb12463-90) stipulates four test methods for packaging of dangerous goods, namely stacking test, drop test, air tight test and hydraulic test < br / > stacking test: place the hard load plate on the top surface of the test package, place heavy objects on the plate, and observe whether the stacking is stable, whether the package is deformed and damaged under a certain stacking height (3m by land and 8m by sea) and a certain time (generally 24 hours) < br / > drop test: drop the package according to different drop directions and heights, and observe whether the package is damaged or leaked For example, the falling direction of the steel barrel is: for the first time, the convex edge of the barrel is hit on the ground at an oblique angle; if there is no convex edge, the seam between the barrel body and the barrel bottom is hit The second time, the first time there is no test to the weakest place, such as longitudinal weld, closed mouth, etc < br / > air tightness test: when the package is immersed in water, inflate and pressurize the package, observe whether there is bubble, or apply soap liquid or other suitable liquid on the seam of barrel or other leakage prone places, inflate and pressurize the package, and observe whether there is bubble < br / > hydraulic test: according to different packing types, select different pressure to pressurize for 5min, and observe whether the packing is damaged For example, for acid resistant jars and ceramic jars, the packing pressure of class I is 250kPa, that of class II is 200KPa, and that of class III is 200KPa < br / > the packaging containing chemicals must be inspected by the designated department and can only be used after meeting the relevant test standards < br / > 1.1.2 basic requirements of packaging < br / > 1 The transport packaging of dangerous goods should have reasonable structure, certain strength and good protective performance The material, type, specification, method and single piece quality (weight) of the package shall be suitable for the nature and use of the dangerous goods, and shall be convenient for loading, unloading, transportation and storage < br / > 2 The packaging shall be of good quality, and its structure and sealing form shall be able to bear various operation risks under normal transportation conditions No leakage (scattering) shall occur due to the change of temperature, humidity or pressure The packaging surface shall be clean and no harmful hazardous substances shall be adhered < br / > 3 If necessary, inner coating or protective treatment shall be provided for the part directly contacting with the inner contents The packaging material shall not react with the inner contents to form dangerous products or weaken the packaging strength < br / > 4 The contents should be fixed In case of friability, the liner material or absorbent material suitable for the nature of the contents shall be used < br / > 5 The container containing liquid shall be able to withstand the internal pressure generated under normal transportation conditions Sufficient expansion margin (reserved volume) must be reserved during filling Unless otherwise specified, it shall be ensured that the liquid in the container will not completely fill the container when the temperature is 55 ℃ < br / > 6 According to the nature of the contents, the packing should be sealed tightly, liquid tightly or airtight < br / > 7 When the container is filled with substances that need to be wetted or added with stabilizers, the closed form of the container shall be able to effectively ensure the percentage of the liquid (water, solvent and stabilizers) contained in it, which shall be kept within the specified range during the storage and transportation < br / > 8 For the package with pressure reducing device, the design and installation of the vent hole shall be able to prevent the leakage of the contents and the entry of external impurities, and the amount of discharged gas shall not cause danger and environmental pollution < br / > 9 The contents of the composite package and the outer package shall be closely fitted, and the outer package shall be free of protrusions that scratch the contents < br / > 1 Whether it is new packaging, reusable packaging or repaired packaging, it shall meet the requirements of transport packaging performance test of dangerous goods < br / > 11 Additional requirements for packing of explosives: < br / > (1) the closed form of containers for liquid explosives shall be provided with double protection against leakage; < br / > (2) except that the inner packaging can fully prevent the contact between explosives and metal objects, nails and other metal parts without protective coating shall not penetrate the outer packaging; < br / > (3) steel drums with double crimping joint, Metal barrel or packing box lined with metal shall be able to prevent explosives from entering the gap The sealing device of steel drum or aluminum drum must have proper gasket; < br / > (4) the explosive substances and articles in the package, including the contents, must be properly padded, and shall not be moved dangerously during transportation < br / > < br / > 1.1.3 packaging mark < br / > 1 Packaging, storage and transportation pictorial mark < br / > in order to ensure the safety of chemical transportation, the packaging, storage and transportation pictorial mark (GB191-90) specifies some pictorial symbols on the transportation package to remind the storage and transportation personnel to pay attention to Such as: rain proof, sun proof, fragile, etc., for the operator to carry out corresponding operations according to different conditions during loading and unloading < br / > 2 Packaging mark of dangerous goods < br / > different chemicals have different dangers and degrees of danger In order to make the contacts know the dangers at a glance, the packaging mark of dangerous goods (gb190-90) specifies the category, name, size and color of the pictorial mark of dangerous goods There are 21 kinds and 19 names of the pictorial mark of dangerous goods < br / > 1.1.4 safety label < br / > sticking safety label on the chemical package is a good way to warn the chemical contact personnel of its danger and correctly grasp the safe disposal method of the chemical The regulations on the preparation of chemical safety label (gb15258-1999) stipulates the content, production requirements, use methods and precautions of the chemical safety label This label flows with the commodity In case of an accident, you can learn the relevant disposal information from the label At the same time, the label also provides the emergency consultation telephone of the manufacturer If necessary, you can get in touch with the production unit through the telephone to get the handling method < br / > 1.2 chemical storage < br / > safety storage is a very important link in the process of chemical circulation Improper storage will cause major accidents For example, the explosion of Qingshuihe dangerous goods warehouse in Shenzhen not only caused huge economic losses to the country, but also caused casualties In order to strengthen the management of storage of hazardous chemicals, the state has continuously strengthened the supervision of storage and formulated the storage standards of hazardous chemicals, which plays an important role in regulating the storage of chemicals < br / > 1.2.1 storage requirements < br / > 1 Basic requirements for storage of hazardous chemicals < br / > the place for storage of hazardous chemicals must comply with national laws, regulations and other relevant regulations; < br / > it must be stored in a special hazardous chemicals warehouse approved by the public security department, The quantity of hazardous chemicals stored in the self managed warehouse of the Distribution Department must be approved by the public security department; < br / > the outdoor stacking of hazardous chemicals must meet the requirements of fire prevention and explosion protection; < br / > explosives, class I inflammables, wet burning articles and highly toxic articles must not be stacked in the open air; < br / > the warehouse storing hazardous chemicals must be equipped with technical personnel with professional knowledge, The warehouse and place shall be managed by special personnel, and the management personnel must be equipped with reliable personal protective equipment; < br / > the stored hazardous chemicals shall have obvious signs, which shall comply with the provisions of gb190 When two or more dangerous goods of different levels are stored in the same area, they shall be stored according to the performance mark of the highest level of dangerous goods; < br / > · according to the dangerous area, classification and warehouse < br / > < br / > 2 Requirements for storage place < br / > there shall be no basement or other underground buildings for the storage of hazardous chemicals, and its fire resistance rating, number of floors, floor area, safe evacuation and fire separation shall comply with the relevant national regulations; < br / > the setting of storage place and building structure shall not only comply with the relevant national regulations, but also consider the impact on the surrounding environment and residents < br / > the electrical installation of the storage place < br / > < br / > < br / > · ventilation or temperature regulation in the storage area * ventilation equipment must be installed in the building where dangerous chemicals are stored, and the protective measures for the equipment must be paid attention to < br / > < br / > < br / > < br / > < br / > < br / > 1.2.2 storage method < br / > hazardous chemicals can be stored in three ways: isolated storage, separated storage and separated storage < br / >
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