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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > Progress of HIV research highlights in May 2020

    Progress of HIV research highlights in May 2020

    • Last Update: 2020-06-19
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    < br / >In 1983, HIV was first discovered in the United StatesIt is a lentivirus that infects cells of the human immune systemIt is a retrovirusHIV destroys the T lymphocyte of human body, and then blocks the process of cellular immunity and humoral immunity, leading to the paralysis of the immune system, which leads to the spread of various diseases in human body, and ultimately leads to AIDSDue to the rapid variation of HIV, it is difficult to produce specific vaccine, so far there is no effective treatment, which poses a great threat to human health< br / > < br / > since the 1980s, the HIV epidemic has claimed more than 34 million livesAccording to the statistics of the World Health Organization (who), it is estimated that 36.9 million people around the world were infected with HIV in 2017, of which only 59% of those infected with HIV received antiretroviral therapy (Art)So far, HIV is still one of the biggest public health challenges in the world, so it is urgent to study the function of HIV in depth to help researchers develop new therapies that can effectively combat the diseaseIn order to prevent the massive replication of virus from damaging the immune system, people with HIV need to take art every day or even for lifeAlthough it has been proved that art can effectively inhibit the onset of AIDS, but such drugs are expensive, time-consuming and labor-consuming and have serious side effectsThere is an urgent need to find a cure for HIV infection< br / >? Bio Valley editor combed the news about HIV research reported by Bio Valley this month for you to read< br / > 1< br / > Chinese scientists reveal the mechanism of HIV-1 virus core entering host cell nucleus < br / > doi:10.1007/s11427-020-1716-x < br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Huazhong University of science and technology found out how the HIV-1 virus core enters the host cell nucleus by combining cell molecular imaging and electron microscopyRelevant research results were published online in the Journal of Science China Life Sciences on May 14, 2020The title of the paper is "HIV-1 virtual cores enter the nucleus collectively through the nucleus endocytosis like pathway" < br / > Image Source: NIAID < br / > < br / > it is generally believed that the process of HIV-1 infection includes the following steps: membrane fusion, virus core release, reverse transcription, capsid disintegration in the cytoplasm, virus genome entering the nucleus, virus genome integration, and then self replication using the host cell system However, recent studies have found that viral capsid also exists in the nucleus and plays a role in the selection of integration sites and immune escape < br / > They found that after entering the cell, HIV-1 particles move along the microtubule and selectively gather in the center of microtubule tissue (MTOC), which will lead to deformation, invagination and repair of the nuclear membrane nearby, thus forming nuclear vesicles that wrap the virus core Subsequently, the inner membrane of nuclear vesicles ruptured, releasing HIV-1 into the nucleus This phenomenon is similar to endocytosis, so it is named "nuclear endocytosis like pathway" They made a preliminary study of the factors involved in the process < br / > 2 Science sub Journal: reveal allogeneic hematopoiesis < br / > stem cells < br / > there is a vulnerable window of HIV reinfection after transplantation < br / > doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aay9355 < br / > < br / > in order to treat different types of blood cancer, some HIV infected patients need to receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation During these transplants, most of the immune cells in these patients will be eliminated Then, hematopoietic < br / > stem cells < br / > from healthy donors are used to replace patients' damaged bone marrow and restore their immune system In a new study, researchers from Germany, France, Spain, Belgium, Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands collected clinical, virological and immunological data of 16 patients before and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation They observed that despite the reactivation of HIV specific T cells, T cell reconstitution was incomplete after allogeneic hematopoietic < br / > stem cell < br / > transplantation A period of high immune activation indicates the existence of a "window of vulnerability" for the re seeding of HIV library These valuable data may provide clues to help other people in similar situations, and more generally, to cure HIV infection The related research results were recently published in the Journal of Science Translational Medicine, and the title of the paper is "vulnerability to reservoir reseeding due to high immune activation after allogeneic thermophilic step cell translation in individuals with HIV-1" Dr Johanna Eberhard, the first author of the paper, said, "in the first few weeks after allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation, donor cells and patient cells still co-exist, and CD4 + T cells (helper T cells) are strongly activated This activation may promote the reactivation of HIV and the re seeding of CD4 + donor T cells " < br / > < br / > in collaboration with researchers at the Pasteur Institute in France, Dr Eberhard found that the donor cell's new specific T-cell response to HIV protein also occurred after this time This suggests that donor cells have been exposed to HIV in the process of proliferation and have learned to respond to them Dr Eberhard said this confirmed the existence of a "fragile window" during which HIV infection of donor cells could occur < br / > 3 NAT Med: heavy! The new HIV vaccine strategy may enhance and extend the immunity of primates! doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0858-8 < br / > < br / > recently, in a research report published in the international journal Nature Medicine, scientists from Stanford University School of medicine and other institutions revealed a new vaccine strategy that can significantly enhance and maintain the protection of monkeys against HIV, The results of this study are also of great significance to < br / > immunology < br / > family in finding vaccine strategies for other diseases such as coronavirus < br / > < br / > up to now, all the approved vaccines have neutralized the virus by inducing antibodies, but it seems to be a very difficult task to induce and maintain a high level of neutralizing antibodies; we have proved that strong protection against HIV can be obtained by stimulating the cell arm of the immune system, This is true even with lower levels of neutralizing antibodies In this latest study, the researchers used a dual method to stimulate serum and cell immunity They vaccinated three groups of 15 rhesus monkeys in 40 weeks The first group received multiple successive env vaccinations Env's outer membrane protein can stimulate antibody production, When a chemical mixture is formed with adjuvants, it can be used to develop vaccines to enhance the overall immune system of the body; the second group of rhesus monkeys is inoculated in a similar way to the first group, but the researchers injected them with three different viruses, each of which has been modified to be infectious but not dangerous, and each modified virus contains the gene encoding the viral protein gag, This protein can stimulate the production of cell immunity; the third group is the control group, the researchers only injected adjuvant < br / >, Animals have experienced significant protection against virus infection; it is worth noting that even though the body lacks high levels of neutralizing antibodies, some animals in the env + gag group (but none of Env animals) are still uninfected The researchers believe that the increased serum immune response of neutralizing antibodies may be the source of determining the effectiveness of the vaccine < br / > < br / > in addition, animals in the env + gag group received significantly longer protection time After 20 weeks' rest, six monkeys in the env group and six monkeys in the env + gag group received additional SHIV exposure This time, four monkeys in the env + gag group (only one monkey in the env group) were not infected The researchers speculate that this improvement is due to the production of immune cells stimulated by vaccines called tissue resident memory T cells These cells will migrate to the site where the virus enters the body and stay there for a period of time as sentinels If they find the virus again, these cells will be activated and secrete signals to promote other nearby immune cells to jointly eliminate HIV < br / > 4 Science: research reveals the mechanism of HIV escape therapy < br / > doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz0802 < br / > < br / > according to the research published by researchers from Yale University in the Journal of Science Translational Medicine on May 13, for AIDS patients, even if the antiretroviral treatment is successful, HIV can remain dormant in immune system cells for decades, and reappear to threaten patients' lives Now researchers at Yale University have discovered a molecular mechanism for how the virus performs this secret trick < br / > < br / > the long-lived CD4 T cells are the shelter of HIV HIV can escape the recognition of the immune system by integrating its genomic DNA with the T cell genome However, because the virus is inactive at this time, there is no trace left to mark its location < br / > Image Source: 。 The < br / > < br / > ho team extracted cells from HIV patients who had received antiretroviral therapy Scientists activated the virus in T cells in a lab dish and used fluorescent probes to tag viral RNA that recognizes infected cells They then removed these rare HIV infected cells and studied individual cells at high resolution This approach, known as HIV sortseq, allows researchers to track the interaction between host RNA and viruses in a single cell < br / > < br / > they found that HIV essentially hijacks genes that allow T cells to survive Interestingly, the researchers say, HIV is committed to promoting the expression of cancer-related genes In essence, HIV controls the activation of these cancer genes from the host cells Although the process does not cause cancer in T cells, the researchers say it may help these HIV infected T cells proliferate < br / > 5 "Bait" < br / > nano particles can block HIV and prevent infection Infection < br / > < br / > engineers at the University of California, San Diego have developed a promising new "< br / > nano < br / > cavernous" method to prevent the proliferation of HIV in vivo: coating polymer < br / > nano < br / > particles with the cell membrane of helper T cells, and converting them into bait to intercept virus particles and prevent them from binding and entering human immune cells < br / >
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