Research on highlights that cell journals have to watch in May 2020
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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< br / > < br / > May 31, 2020 news / bioun / -- may 2020 is coming to an endWhat are the highlights of cell journal research worth learning in May? Xiaobian has sorted this out and shared it with you< br / > 1< br / > cell: significant progress! Chinese scientists have found 14 kinds of human antibodies which can neutralize sars-cov-2 effectively < br / > doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.025 < br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from Peking University, Capital Medical University, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Beijing danxu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltdused high-throughput single cell sequencing, Many novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2--- causing highly pathogenic respiratory diseases COVID-19 was identified from the convalescent plasmaNeutralizing antibodies produced by the human immune system can effectively prevent the virus from infecting cellsNew results from animal studies show that the neutralizing antibodies they found provide a potential treatment and short-term prevention for covid-19This marks an important milestone in the resistance to the covid-19 epidemic< br / > image from cell, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.025 。 < br / > < br / > the related research results were published online in the cell Journal on May 17, 2020, and the paper title was "potent neutralising antibiotics against sars-cov-2 identified by high-throughput single cell sequencing of valuable patients' B cells"The corresponding authors of this paper are Xie Xiaoliang, director of Beijing future gene diagnosis center, Peking University, Qin Chuan, director of experimental animal research institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Jin ronghua, vice president of Beijing You'an Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, and Qin Chengfeng, director of virus department, Institute of microbial epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences< br / > 2< br / > cell: the first detailed analysis of the immune response to sars-cov-2 indicates that the development prospect of covid-19 vaccine is good < br / > doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015 < br / >, Epidemiologists are also novel coronavirus to predict the development of the new pandemicHowever, both efforts face unresolved uncertainties about whether the immune system can respond substantively and persistently to sars-cov-2, and whether exposure to the common cold causing coronavirus (hereinafter referred to as cold Coronavirus) transmitted in humans can provide any protective immune response< br / > < br / > in a new study, DrAlessandro Sette and his team, DrShane Crotty and his team from La Jolla Institute of immunology in the United States, began to fill in a huge knowledge gap, providing good news for vaccine developers, and providing cellular immunology data for the first time to help guide social distance adviceThe related research results were published online in cell Journal on May 14, 2020, and the paper title is "targets of T cell responses to sars-cov-2 coronavirus in humans with covid-19 disease and unexpressed individuals" < br / > < br / > this new study documents a group of 20 adults who recovered from covid-19 showing a strong antiviral immune response to sars-cov-2 These results show that the human immune system can recognize sars-cov-2 in many ways, thus eliminating the concern that the virus may evade the effective vaccine being developed < br / > 3 < br / > cell: new research reveals mysterious cell mechanism of megavirus infection < br / > doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.032 < br / > < br / > in a new study, researchers from Michigan State University, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil revealed mysterious and fascinating megaviruses and key aspects of their process of infecting cells With the help of advanced imaging technology, they have established a reliable model for the study of megaviruses, and for the first time identified a variety of key proteins responsible for coordinating the infection of megaviruses The related research results were published online in the cell Journal on May 8, 2020, under the title of "structural and professional characterization of the initiation of giant virus infection" The megavirus is larger than 300 nanometers in size and can survive for thousands of years By contrast, the rhinovirus that causes the common cold is about 30 nanometers < br / > image from cell, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.032 。 < br / > < br / > in the research process, several obstacles need to be solved "Because of its size, megaviruses are difficult to visualize," parent said To solve this problem, Jason Schrad, a graduate student at parent lab, developed a new method to simulate the infection stage Using Michigan State University's new cryo-EM and scanning electron microscopes, the parent team has subjected a variety of megavirus species to a series of harsh chemical and environmental treatments designed to simulate the conditions that megavirus may experience in the course of infection "Cryo EM enables us to study virus and protein structures at the atomic level and capture their processes of action," parent said It's very important to use this technology, and the new microscope at Michigan State University has opened a new door for research on campus " < br / > < br / > these results show that there are three environmental conditions that successfully induce the opening of the gate: low pH, high temperature and high salt More importantly, each condition induces a different stage of infection < br / > < br / > < br / > 4 < br / > cell weighs! Ketogenic diet changes gut microbiome and gut immune system! doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.027 < br / > < br / > < br / > "Dr Peter Turnbaugh, member of the Benioff Medical Center for Microbiology, researcher Chen Zuckerberg and associate professor of immunobiology and microbiology, UCSF, said "We decided to explore this confusing distinction "< br / > < br / > in their new study published in the journal Cell on May 20, 2020, Turnbaugh and his colleagues, in collaboration with the non-profit organization nutrition science initiative, recruited 17 adult overweight or obese non-diabetic men to be hospitalized in the metabolic ward for two months, where their diet and exercise levels were carefully monitored and controlled < br / > < br / > highlights of this study include: ketogenic diet changes intestinal microbiota in a different way than high-fat diet; partial changes of intestinal microbiota caused by ketogenic diet are driven by the production of ketones in the host; β - hydroxybutyric acid selectively inhibits the growth of bifidobacteria; vitamin D-related intestinal microbiota reduces the level of intestinal Th17 cells < br / > 5 < br / > cell: uncovering the immunopathological characteristics of severe patients with covid-19 by host virus infection spectrum < br / > doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.006 < br / >, So as to achieve the sequencing of transcription cells of infected cells and bystander cells < br / > < br / > the researchers demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of virus tracking to systematically detect viruses from a variety of infection models, including unsupervised detection of hepatitis B virus By tracking the virus in broncholavage fluid samples of severe and mild patients with covid-19, the researchers found that the impact of the virus on the immune system of severe patients was significantly greater than that of mild patients In addition, the researchers also accidentally detected co infection of human metapneumovirus during virus tracking, mainly in damaged monocytes in the type I interferon signaling pathway < br / > < br / > in general, the virus tracking technology developed by researchers provides strong technical support for virus infection and anatomy of pathological mechanism, reveals the immunological characteristics between patients with different symptoms, and is expected to provide reference and suggestions for personalized drug delivery treatment of patients with different symptoms < br / > 6 < br / > cell: training immunity - an effective way to reduce the susceptibility of sars-cov-2! doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.042 An important part of the pathophysiology of covid-19 is the imbalance of inflammatory response Recently, researchers from radbold University and Bonn University and other units described these processes from this perspective, and proposed a basic principle of host oriented therapy based on induction of training immunity in high-risk population With regard to sars-cov-2 infection, there are several very important issues that need urgent treatment < br / > < br / > first of all, joint efforts should be made to decipher detailed pathophysiological diseases Although there are some similarities with other severe respiratory virus infections (such as influenza) at this stage, which helps us to propose the first batch of immunomodulators for testing (such as anakinra or tocilizumab), there are important differences, which are likely to involve other approaches < br / > image from cell, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.042 。 < br / > < br / > < br / > finally, clinical trials have been started in some countries to test the ability of BCG to prevent covid-19 However, BCG vaccine may not be the only vaccine with this positive heterologous effect: new recombinant tuberculosis vaccines such as vpm1002, 12 or other vaccines such as measles vaccine and OPV may have similar effects and also be considered for clinical trials Even if the vaccination method of training immunization is successful, it can only provide partial protection in a limited time Therefore, although training immunization is useful, it is only a bridge to the development of specific vaccines for sars-cov-2, which is the most important tool to control the pandemic < br / > < br / > however, training immunity to enhance host defense, even if effective, may have a limited duration, which may help to reduce the spread of infection in the first stage of the pandemic, and is an important tool to combat the rapid spread of emerging pathogens < br / > 7 < br / > cell: uncover the molecular mechanism of maintaining the growth of organism tissue < br / > doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.015 < br / > < br / > in adult tissues, the number of cells in tissues and organs remains unchanged, and any new cells produced by cell division need to be compensated by the loss of other cells In contrast, in the growth process of the body after birth, when maintaining the function of the tissues, The body will produce too many cells to ensure tissue expansion At present, researchers do not know the molecular mechanism to ensure that the body maintains tissue growth from birth to adulthood < br / > < br / > recently, in a research report published in the international journal Cell, scientists from Brussels Free University and other institutions revealed the molecular mechanism of skin tissue expansion after birth through research Researchers combined multi-disciplinary methods such as pedigree tracking, cell proliferation dynamics, single cell transcriptome and mathematical modeling, It reveals the principle and mechanism of tissue expansion after birth < br / >
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