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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > Research on the heavyweight highlights that Nature magazine had to read in May

    Research on the heavyweight highlights that Nature magazine had to read in May

    • Last Update: 2020-06-19
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    < br / > time is always in a hurryIn an instant, may is coming to an endIn the coming May, what are the highlights of Nature magazine to learn? Editor of the relevant articles are sorted out, and we learn together! < br / > Image Source: niaid-rml < br / > < br / > [1] < br / > nature: reveal the interaction map of sars-cov-2 virus and human protein, and identify 69 compounds targeting these interactions < br / > < br / > doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2286-9 < br / > < br / > in a new study, a research team composed of about 100 scientists has cooperated for the first time, 26 out of 29 sars-cov-2 proteins were cloned and expressed in infected human cellsThen they identified hundreds of human proteins interacting with each virusThese virus host protein interactions are essential for the production of coronavirus disease (covid-19) in humans in 2019Therefore, it is of great significance to elucidate the interaction of these proteins for the development of new antiviral drugs or the reuse of known drugs against covid-19The results were published online in nature on April 30, 2020< br / > < br / > after identifying 332 highly reliable virus human protein interactions using a technique called affinity purification mass spectrometry, the researchers identified 66 drug targeted human proteins and 69 compounds targeting these proteinsOf these compounds, 29 have been approved by the U.SFood and Drug Administration (< br / > FDA < br / >), 12 are in clinical trials < br / > and 28 are preclinical compoundsThe researchers then screened some of these compounds in a variety of viral assays and found two groups of antiviral agents: inhibitors that inhibit the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA); and predictive regulators of two cell receptor proteins, sigma 1 and sigma 2< br / >, Scientists from the University of California and other institutions said through research that crisrp screening of regulatory T cells may be expected to reveal the regulator of Foxp3, which is one of the key transcription factors controlling the development and function of Treg cells (regulatory T cells), and it is an important progress in Treg immunobiology, It also opens a door for scientists to further understand the function and mechanism of Treg< br / > < br / > Treg cells are the key cells needed to control the immune response of the body and maintain the balance of the bodyAt the same time, they are also the important barrier for the body to resist < br / > tumor < br / > immunityOn the contrary, the instability of Treg cells will promote < br / > autoimmunity < br / > or more effective anti < br / > tumor < br / > immunity, Its main characteristics are the absence of the major transcription factor Foxp3 and the acquisition of its pro-inflammatory properties; a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the pathway regulating Foxp3 may help researchers develop more effective Treg therapy to treat a variety of < br / > autoimmune < br / > sexual diseases and cancers, Using the new functional < br / > genetic < br / > tool, we can systematically analyze the gene regulatory program regulating Foxp3 expression< br / > < br / >In order to replace the aging and worn cells, the body will mainly use a process called mitosis to divide the cells into two partsWhen the cells are ready to start dividing, they will start to copy their own DNA to ensure that each progeny cell can obtain complete DNAIn this process, the chromosomes must be accurately allocated to the progeny cells, If the DNA copy in a cell is incomplete or DNA is damaged, it will lead to the occurrence of < br / > genetic < br / > sexual disorders and diseases such as cancerIn order to make cell division, two sets of DNA copies must be located at the opposite ends of the cellFirst, the cell and will decompose its protective shell, then the chromosome is separated by a kind of fiber device, a new nucleus will be formed around each set of DNA, and finally the cell will divide into two generations of cells, each cell has a reconstructed nucleus< br / > < br / > in this study, the researchers deeply understood the complicated process of cell divisionThey found that Lem2 protein has two important functions in the process of cell divisionFirst, Lem2 can form a sealing device in the formed nuclear protective layer to protect two groups of DNA from damageSecond, Lem2 will recruit some factors to break down the fiber device responsible for separating two groups of DNA; in order to confirm the key role of Lem2 in the mitotic process, researchers use color fluorescent markers to mark different components: Lem2, fiber and DNA, This process can help researchers to observe and analyze the whole process from the first combination of Lem2 and the whole fiber until it is decomposedThe LEM2 protein can aggregate with other proteins (ESCRTs) in the pores of the fiber through the protective shell of the nucleus and form a gel like closed structureThe LEM2 O ring structure can effectively block the re formed cell shell and protect each group of DNA from the damage effect of the surrounding nucleus< br / >, Children are vaccinated or powerful tools to resist the resistance of < br / > antibiotics; nowadays, the overuse of < br / > antibiotics is promoting the spread of superbugs all over the worldNow these < br / > bacteria < br / > have evolved to survive in contact with < br / > antibiotics < br / >, This makes people more likely to be infected with diseases such as septicemia and tuberculosis, and people in low-income countries are also suffering from the important blow of antibiotic resistancethis study found that inoculation of two common vaccines of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine can significantly reduce the incidence rate of acute respiratory tract infections and diarrhea in children in low and middle-income countries, and the number of children receiving antibiotic therapy will decrease significantly as the number of children with severe or serious diseases decreasesResearcher Joseph lewnard said that at present, almost all countries have developed or are in the process of developing national action plans to combat the crisis of antibiotic resistance to the national health system, but there is little evidence to show which interventions are effectiveBy providing precise figures on the substantial impact of using only the two vaccines, the researchers say vaccination may be one of the top priority interventions< br / > < br / > [5] < br / > nature: overthrow the previous theory! The latest research reveals for the first time that the fine structure of bacterial cell wall is expected to completely solve the problem of antibiotic resistance! < br / > In this paper, the researchers revealed the new important structure of the bacterial outer membrane of Staphylococcus aureus The relevant research results are crucial for understanding the growth of bacteria and the mechanism of antibiotics At the same time, they also overturned the previous theory about the bacterial outer membrane structure The images obtained by the researchers can help them to understand the composition of the cell wall of < br / > bacteria < br / >, New antibiotics have not been developed to help fight antibiotic resistance < br / > < br / > researcher LAIA pasquena lemonche, Ph.D., said that many antibiotics can play a role by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell wall, which is a solid but permeable outer membrane around the bacteria, which is crucial for the survival of bacteria; at present, we are not very clear about how antibiotics such as penicillin kill bacteria, but this is not surprising, because so far, The researchers are not very clear about the actual structure of the cell wall of < br / > bacteria, but this study provides a new clue and basis for researchers to better understand the mechanism of the action of antibiotics, and provides a new idea for later development of new methods to resist antibiotic resistance < br / > Image Source: < br / >, Scientists from the Whitehead Institute of biomedical research and other institutions have identified the structural diversity of RNA and its key role in HIV-1 splicing < br / > < br / > human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus, which contains a single strand RNA genome with 10 kilobases HIV must express all its gene products through a single primary transcript, but this transcript must undergo alternative splicing process to produce a variety of protein products, It includes structural proteins and regulatory factors Although alternative splicing plays a key role, the mechanism that drives the splicing site selection is not clear to researchers The synonymous RNA mutations that lead to serious defects in splicing and virus replication may indicate the existence of unknown cis regulatory elements < br / >, Scientists from Vienna Medical University and other institutions revealed the molecular design mechanism of hypothalamic development through research In vertebrates, a variety of special neuroendocrine control systems located in the hypothalamus control the most basic physiological needs of the body However, researchers lack a blueprint to integrate the molecular determinants of neuronal and glial cell diversity on the time and space scales of hypothalamic development < br / > < br / > in this study, the researchers combined the results of single cell RNA sequencing, gene regulatory network (GRN) screening, disease phenotype based on genome-wide association study and genetic < br / > line reconstruction of mouse cells from 51199 ectodermal sources, It is revealed that 9 kinds of glial cells and 33 kinds of neuron subtypes are produced in the second trimester of pregnancy under the control of different gene regulatory networks Combined molecular coding by neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and transcription factors may need to decode the taxonomic hierarchy of hypothalamic neurons < br / >
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