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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > Science Advances: Massachusetts General Hospital discovers the regulation mechanism of natural killer (NK) cell function, bringing new opportunities for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity and other diseases

    Science Advances: Massachusetts General Hospital discovers the regulation mechanism of natural killer (NK) cell function, bringing new opportunities for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity and other diseases

    • Last Update: 2022-05-14
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    According to the data released by the China Anti-Cancer Association: China ranks first in the world in terms of incidence and mortality of cancer.
    Every year, 1.
    6 million people in China suffer from cancer, and nearly 1.
    3 million people die of cancer, accounting for 1/5 of the disease deaths.
    Rising year by year and showing a younger trend

    .
    The top 10 cancer incidence rates in China are:
    lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, uterine cancer, and prostate cancer
    .

    Lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, uterine cancer, prostate cancer
    .
    Lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, uterine cancer, prostate cancer
    .

    Humans have never stopped understanding cancer and researching and developing treatment methods.
    This article will introduce the latest research results of Massachusetts General Hospital on cancer-related treatment methods - the regulation mechanism of natural killer (NK) cell function

    .

    Main points of the article:

    Main points of the article:

    Collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix form the scaffolding that supports the organs, causing the immune system's natural killer (NK) cells to shut down their "killing" function
    .

    The high blood pressure drug losartan sensitized previously drug-resistant melanomas to natural killer cells by blocking collagen deposition in the tumors
    .

    A new study from Massachusetts General Hospital reveals the interaction between affecting natural killer (NK) cells -- which are part of the body's innate or first-line immune response -- and tumor cells, viral infections and solid organ transplantation.
    factor

    .
    The results, published in Science Advances, can be used to help protect people from cancer, invading pathogens, autoimmunity, inflammatory diseases and transplant rejection

    .

    Pictured, NK cells (green) are embedded in the collagen-rich (red) skin matrix, inhibiting them to directly kill epidermal keratinocytes (yellow)

    Pictured, NK cells (green) are embedded in the collagen-rich (red) skin matrix, inhibiting them to directly kill epidermal keratinocytes (yellow)

    NK cells can effectively kill target cells in the blood, but they cannot kill infected cancer cells in tissues and organs such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and breast
    .
    Shawn Demehri, Principal Investigator of the Cancer Immunology and Skin Biology Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, said: "This extreme lack of killing function of NK cells in solid organs has puzzled NK cell biologists for the past 60 years.

    "Demehri's work in recent years has uncovered a new explanation for why NK cells lose their ability to kill target cells in solid organs:

    Organs are composed of cells embedded in a dense extracellular matrix (ECM), a delicate protein matrix that forms a scaffold to maintain organ structure and integrity
    .
    Interactions between NK cells and ECM proteins result in the immediate switch of NK cells from killer cells to helper cells upon exiting blood vessels and entering solid organs

    .
    As helper cells, NK cells produce molecules that activate and support other neighboring immune cells

    .

    Dr.
    Shawn Demehri

    Dr.
    Shawn Demehri

    Principal Investigator, Cancer Immunology and Skin Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital

    Principal Investigator, Cancer Immunology and Skin Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital

    Demehri and his team speculate that the rapid killing response of NK cells in the blood and their delayed helper responses in tissues and organs are the result of natural selection in human evolution
    .
    "Infection of the bloodstream requires immediate control by NK cells to ensure host survival; however, inhibiting direct killing in peripheral tissues can prevent an overreaction to local injury that predisposes patients to more Tissue damage and the development of chronic inflammation

    .
    At the same time, the development of an overall more targeted, moderately intense adaptive helper function may be best suited to combat viral infection of peripheral tissues

    .
    "

    In this latest study, involving skin grafts and a mouse model of melanoma, the researchers found that collagen and elastin -- proteins that make up the major abundance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in solid organs -- are critical for tissue and solid tumors A key regulator of NK cell function in
    .

    "Our fundamental findings on how NK cells are regulated in peripheral tissues have broad implications for patients with a variety of health conditions," said co-first author Maulik Vyas, a postdoc in the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Immunology Center
    .
    Strategies for NK cell-ECM interactions could provide novel therapies to combat cancer, viral infections, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and fibrosis, and improve organ transplant rejection

    .
    "

    For example, the scientists showed for the first time that losartan, a drug commonly used to treat high blood pressure, can sensitize previously drug-resistant melanomas to NK cell killing by blocking collagen deposition in tumors
    .
    This finding is important because collagen is often very abundant in solid tumors, including breast and pancreatic cancers

    .

    Dr.
    Maulik Vyas said: "Our data strongly support that this therapy that blocks collagen-NK cell interactions, when combined with current immunotherapies, could optimize the treatment of solid tumors

    .
    And our study informs future research.
    A strong rationale for fully understanding how ECM proteins regulate NK and other immune cell responses in both health and disease conditions will greatly expand the development of future therapies that exploit the interaction between ECM proteins and the immune system to treat a variety of diseases

    .
    "

    About Massachusetts General Hospital

    About Massachusetts General Hospital

    Founded in 1811, Massachusetts General Hospital is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School
    .
    We have the largest hospital-based research program in the nation and the largest recipient of NIH research funding, spanning more than 20 hospital clinical departments and centers

    .
    Massachusetts General Hospital can provide accurate diagnosis and treatment for nearly every specialty and subspecialty, medicine and surgery

    .
    Our six multidisciplinary care centers are world-renowned for innovation in cancer, digestive disease, cardiology, neurology, vascular medicine and trauma centers

    .
    In addition, Massachusetts Children's General Hospital provides comprehensive pediatric health services, from primary care to the use of cutting-edge therapies to diagnose and treat complex and rare diseases

    .
    Massachusetts General Hospital has been rated as one of the top hospitals in the United States by U.
    S.
    News and World Report for many years, and has been ranked in 14 specialty rankings

    .
    Of the nearly 5,000 hospitals evaluated, Massachusetts General Hospital has been among the top hospitals on the Honor Roll since the selection began in 1990

    .

    Original source:

    Original Source: Original Source:

    Katie Marquedant.
    Study reveals how to activate natural killer cells to protect against cancer and other diseases.
    Science Advances, 2022.

    Katie Marquedant.
    Study reveals how to activate natural killer cells to protect against cancer and other diseases.
    Science Advances, 2022.


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