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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Immunology News > Science highlights sweet bait: glycosylated antibodies are actually "accomplices" of virus invasion

    Science highlights sweet bait: glycosylated antibodies are actually "accomplices" of virus invasion

    • Last Update: 2021-06-10
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Written by Hu Xiaohua | Enzyme beauty antibody is a type of protective Y-type protein produced by B cells under the stimulation of antigen.

    Generally speaking, the production of antibodies can help the host better defend against viral infections, but for dengue fever virus (DENV), the situation is just the opposite: compared to the first infection, the second infection is more deadly.
    The process is also called antibody dependent enhancement (ADE).

    Simply put, the anti-DENV IgG antibody will bind to cells expressing Fcγ receptors through its Fc segment, and then mediate the virus into these cells and increase the susceptibility of the virus [1].

    Another important clinical phenomenon is that in some critically ill patients with dengue fever, the afucosylated IgG abundance of IgG antibodies is increased [2].

    However, whether the increased levels of non-fucose-modified anti-DENV IgG are due to secondary infection, and whether their increased levels can be used as a prognostic indicator of the severity of viral infections is still unclear.

    On June 4, 2021, Professor Jeffrey V.
    Ravetch from the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology of Rockefeller University and his collaborators published a research article titled Antibody fucosylation predicts disease severity in secondary dengue infection in Science.
    They It was found that the level of non-fucose-modified IgG antibody can be used to predict the severity of secondary dengue virus infection.First, by comparing the glycosylation groups of IgG antibodies in severe and mild patients, the authors found that whether it is total IgG1 antibodies or anti-DENV virus-specific IgG1 antibodies in severe patients, their levels of non-fucose modifications are increased.
    Yes, while other IgG antibodies (such as IgG2, IgG3/4) have no significant changes, suggesting that the increased level of non-fucose modification of IgG1 antibodies may be related to the criticality of DENV patients.

    Furthermore, the author verified the previous results in DENV patients with different critical levels (including dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome).
    The authors found that as the criticality of DENV patients increases, the level of IgG1 antibodies in the patients The level of non-fucose modification also increased.

    And the author found that the level of non-fucose modification of IgG1 antibody in the patient's body has a strong linear correlation with the two physiological indicators that characterize the criticality of DENV patients-platelet hematocrit and hematocrit, while the level of DENV IgG antibody in the patient Titer has no correlation with these two indicators.

    These experimental results together indicate that the level of non-fucose modification of IgG1 antibody can better reflect the criticality of DENV patients.

    Finally, in order to explore whether the non-fucose modification of IgG1 antibody is related to DENV in other viruses, the author separately investigated the two virus types, West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), and found that IgG1 antibody The level of non-salt-fucose modification in these two patients did not change, indicating that the invasion of DENV virus specifically changed the level of non-fucose modification of IgG1 antibody in the body.

    It is worth mentioning here that on December 23, 2020, the research team of Professor Gestur Vidarsson from the Sankun Institute in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, also published a titled Afucosylated IgG characterizes enveloped viral responses and correlates with COVID-19 in Science.
    Severity’s research article and the above-mentioned research have reached similar conclusions: they found that the level of non-fucose modification of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody in severely ill patients with COVID-19 is also increased, instead of fucose-modified IgG Antibodies can cause a stronger immune response, which in turn triggers inflammatory storms and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ultimately leads to severe COVID-19 [3].

    It can be said that the conclusions of these two studies echo each other, and they are quite similar.

    In response to the results of these two studies, Science Magazine also invited Professors Ruklanthi de Alwis and Eng Eong Ooi from the Dukenus School of Medicine in Singapore to publish a review article titled Antibody sugars are bittersweet on Science at the same time.
    The research work of the research group has given great affirmation.

    First of all, they believe that Professor Vidarsson's research work has found a possible explanation for the excessive inflammatory response in severely ill patients with COVID-19, that is, elevated non-fucose-modified IgG antibodies may trigger this response.

    The research work of Professor Jeffrey V.
    Ravetch has expanded our understanding of the dengue antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect and found a prognostic factor that can predict the severity of dengue virus infection. At the same time, they believe that these two studies have also led to some very important scientific questions.
    For example, is the increase in the level of IgG non-fucose modification caused by the dengue vaccine and the COVID-19 vaccine the same? In addition, since the changes in the glycosylation level of spike IgG antibodies in the current COVID-19 vaccines may not be the same, it is still unclear whether these differences will affect the inflammation caused by these vaccines and the protection efficiency.

    Original link: 1.
    sciencemag .
    abj0435 Platemaker: Eleven References 1.
    Bhatt et al.
    , Nature 496, 504–507 (2013) 2.
    TT Wang et al.
    , Science 355, 395– 398 (2017) 3.
    MD Larsen et al.
    , Science 371, eabc8378 (2021) Reprint Instructions [Original Articles] BioArt original articles, personal reposting and sharing are welcome, and reprinting without permission is prohibited.
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