Science Journal, June 5, 2020
Last Update: 2020-06-16
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June 12, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- BioValley BIOON/--- This week has another new journal of Science (June 5, 2020) outLet the little ones come togetherPhoto from the Journal of Science1.Science: NELL2-mediated cavity fluid signaling pathway is the doi necessary for male fertility: 10.1126/science.aay5134; doi:10.1126/science.abc2732 Sperm must mature in the male's adhesicles in order for the egg to be fertilizedNow, in a new study, researchers from Osaka University in Japan, Yamanashi University, the University of Tokyo, Otsuka Pharmaceuticalco sand Baylor College of Medicine in the United States have found a chain of events: a protein secreted by the testicles moves in the cavity fluid, binds to receptors attached to the testicles, induces the receptor differentiation and secretes a second protein, allowing the sperm to mature and allow each sperm to exercise in the femaleThe findings were published in the June 5, 2020 issue of The Journal of Science under the title "NELL2-mediated lumicrine signaling through OVCH2 is swasath for fertility"The researchers focused on NELL2, a cavity fluid regulator of presumptive fertility secreted by testicular reproductive cellsDaiji Kiyozumi, the paper's lead author, explains, "Using innovative genome editing techniques, we have bred mice that lack the Nell2 gene and show that these genes knock out male mice infertile due to a defectininin in sperm motor ability." In addition, their infertility can be saved by reproductive cell-specific genetic modification, thus excluding other expression sitesWe also showed that labeled NELL2 is present in the attached testicular cavity, which explains the pathway of this cavity fluid signal"The researchers observed that the Nell2 gene's sperm that knocked out the testicles of mice performed normally, but that their attached testicles were less differentiated, similar to those in mice with the Ros1 gene knockoutAfter mating, the Nell2 gene knocks out the mouse and the Ros1 gene knocks out the sperm of the mouse neither enters the uterine fallopian tube nor allows the egg to be fertilizedFurther studies have shown that the Nell2 gene knockout of the testes in mice does not produce a key protease, OVCH2, which processes the sperm surface protein ADAM3, which is essential for male fertility2Science: New research helps treat chronic organ rejection doi: 10.1126/science.aax4040; doi:10.1126/science.abc2660 Chronic rejection of transplanted organs is the main cause of transplant failure, and the emergence of autoimmune inhibitors has led to a boom in the field of organ transplantation, but this problem in the field of organ transplantation has not been overcome for nearly six decadesNow, a new discovery led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Houston Methodist Hospital suggests that the innate immune system can remember exogenous cells, paving the way for the design of drugs that extend the long-term survival of transplanted organsThe findings were published this week in the journal Science The author, Dr Frank Lakkis, said: "Currently, in clinical practice, the rate of acute rejection within a year of organ transplantation has been significantly reduced, but many people who receive organ transplants may need a second transplant in their lifetime due to chronic rejection." The discovery that there is a lack of ways to prevent rejection in the field of organ transplantation brings us one step closer to that goal "Using molecular and genetic analysis, the researchers showed that the innate immune system needed a molecule called PIR-A to achieve recognition, and when PIR-A activity was blocked or genetically knocked out, the memory response of the innate immune system was eliminated and the transplanted tissue survived for longer." 3.Science: How do cancer cells produce therapeutic tolerance? doi:10.1126/science.aau8768 Recently published in the journal Science, a breakthrough study showed that cancer cells can develop resistance to cancer treatment by activating the "error-prone DNA replication" pathway Bacteria also develop antibiotic resistance by using a similar process called stress mutagenesis In this study, a team led by Professor David Thomas of the Garvan Institute of Medicine showed how many different types of cancer, including melanoma, pancreatic cancer, sarcoma and breast cancer, can make a lot of mistakes when copying DNA after cancer treatment and eventually lead to drug resistance "Resistance can be said to be the main problem facing patients with advanced cancer, and even effective treatments can ultimately fail We've identified basic survival strategies for cancer cells to develop resistance, which provides us with new possible treatment strategies," said study author Professor Thomas, director of the Cancer Center 4.Science: Exploring the toxic nature of the bacteria in the virus-transmitted doi: 10.1126/science.aba5256 plasmicparticles are widely present in bacteria, and its importance lies in their spread of toxicity and antibiotic resistance They shift horizontally between strains and strains, so it is difficult to understand their evolution and epidemiology Austcase is a diverse species group that infects plants, and the carcinogenic Ti and Ri plasmids they inject into plants can cause coronary and hair root disease, respectively The advantage is that these plasmids have become valuable biotechnology tools Weisberg et al combed through the strains of aucobacteria collected over the past 80 years, but found that the diversity of plasmids was surprisingly low Inexplicably, despite reports of high levels of plasmid recombination, the number of plasmid sutemass strains is limited, but it is clear how plant production systems affect the spread of plasmids into various genomic skeletons 5.Science: The analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the human CST complex doi: 10.1126/science.aaz9649 highly conservative mammalian CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex is essential for genomic stability and telomere maintenance Lim et al used cryogenic electron microscopes to analyze the structure of human CST complexes CST creates an unprecedented large octapolymer supercomplex triggered by telomere single-stranded binding This octapolymer supercomplex has a single-stranded DNA binding capability of up to 10 telom repeat sequences, suggesting that CST may assemble telomere protrusion sequences (telomere overhang) into a compact, restrictive structure in a manner similar to nuclear small bodies assembling double-stranded DNA This study provides a platform for understanding the mechanisms of CST's various functions 6 Science: Explore the threshold for mangrove survival under rapid rise in sea level doi: 10.1126/science.aba2656; doi: 10.1126/science.abc3735 Sea level rise has doubled, from 1.8 mm per year in the 20th century to about 3.4 mm per year in recent years Saintilan et al investigated the possible impact of this rising rate on coastal mangrove forests Mangroves are a tropical ecosystem of critical importance to coastal protection They looked back at data from the increase in mangroves between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, when sea levels rose even faster because of melting glaciers Their analysis suggests that the upper limit of 7 mm per year is the maximum rate of sea level rise associated with vertical growth of mangroves, but once this rate is exceeded, the ecosystem cannot keep up with the changes Based on the projected rate of sea level rise, they predict that the gap between increased mangroves and sea level rise could begin in the next 30 years 7.Science: Explore microbial spores encapsulated with DNA barcodes: 10.1126/science.aba5584; doi:10.1126/science.abc4246 Under adverse environmental conditions, some microorganisms form spores, providing strong protection against genetic material Qian et al developed a system in which DNA barcodes are encapsulated in unborn microbial spores and can be spread across objects or environments These barcode spores provide a long-lasting, specific mark that can be read quickly with a simple device When scattered on soil, these microbial spores can be transferred to or from surrounding objects, enabling the tracking of meter resolution On plant leaves, these spores are not easily transferred Based on this, the authors demonstrated the potential use of such a system to track agricultural products 8.Science: Subsea microplastic hotspots controlled by deep-sea circulation doi: 10.1126/science.aba5899; doi:10.1126/science.abc1510 What controls the distribution of microplastics on the deep seabed? Kane et al found that the answer to this question was much more complicated than the simple subsidence of the particles from the surface of the sea Using data they collected off the coast of Corsica, the authors found that temperate salt circulation seiscants can control the distribution of microplastics by building accumulated hot spots, similar to their role in the concentrated areas that cause sediment deposits on the seafloor This circulation also provides oxygen and nutrients for deep seabed organisms, so deep-sea biodiversity hotspots may also be microplastic hotspots (Bio Valley Bioon.com)
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