Scientists have made important achievements in the research of T cell therapy!
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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< br / > < br / > < br / / > in this paper, several important research results have been compiled to focus on the new progress of scientists in the field of T-cell therapy and share with you! < br / > picture source: Frontiers < br / > < br / >  < br / > NAT Immunol: the expression of dendritic cell growth factor Flt3L can promote the antitumor immune response of car-t cells < br / > < br / > doi: 10.1038/s41590-020-0676-7 < br / > < br / > adoptive T-cell therapy including car-t is a new form of immunotherapy, It can redirect the immune system to target cancerIn car-t cell therapy, killer T cells need to be genetically modified to recognize antigens on the surface of cancer cellsThis treatment can be adjusted according to the situation of each person, and has been successfully used to treat some blood cancers, such as some types of < br / > leukemia < br / >However, the success rate of car-t cell therapy in the treatment of breast cancer and lung cancer is limited< br / > < br / > now, in a new study, researchers from the Peter McCullen cancer center in Australia have found a new way to enhance the activity of dendritic cells to help identify and attack cancer cells, thus adding a new tool for immunotherapy, which can overcome many problems in conventional immunotherapy, The results, published in the journal Nature Immunology, say that one of the main obstacles to effective T-cell therapy is that in many cases, all cancer cells in a single tumor do not look the sameIn fact, in the same < br / > tumor < br /, the high variability of the target protein recognized by car-t cells is very common, and this effect is called heterogeneity< br / >, Scientists from the University of California and other institutions said through research that crisrp screening of regulatory T cells may be expected to reveal the regulator of Foxp3, which is one of the key transcription factors controlling the development and function of Treg cells (regulatory T cells), and it is an important progress in Treg immunobiology, It also opens a door for scientists to further understand the function and mechanism of Treg< br / > < br / > Treg cells are the key cells needed to control the immune response of the body and maintain the balance of the bodyAt the same time, they are also the important barrier for the body to resist < br / > tumor < br / > immunityOn the contrary, the instability of Treg cells will promote < br / > autoimmunity < br / > or more effective anti < br / > tumor < br / > immunity, Its main characteristics are the absence of the major transcription factor Foxp3 and the acquisition of its pro-inflammatory properties; a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the pathway regulating Foxp3 may help researchers develop more effective Treg therapy to treat a variety of < br / > autoimmune < br / > sexual diseases and cancers, Using the new functional < br / > genetic < br / > tool, we can systematically analyze the gene regulatory program regulating Foxp3 expression< br / > < br / >, The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a potential therapy for the infectious disease, which includes genetically modified immune cells, including the 2019 coronavirus disease (CV)They recently discussed in a review article titled "challenges of car - and tcr-t cell – based therapy for chronic infections" published in the Journal of experimental medicine that the immunocytotherapy, which caused the transformation of cancer treatment, is also used to treat other infectious diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection< br / >TCR naturally exists on the surface of T cells, and car is an artificial T cell receptor produced in the laboratoryThese receptors allow genetically engineered T cells to recognize cancer cells or virus infected cells< br / >, So they can be reprogrammed into stronger T cell types, which can be used to treat patients and help patients survive longerThe results are published in the recent journal of cancer immunology research < br / > < br / > the team found that the combination of the anticancer drugs panobinostat and interleukin-21 transformed the weaker expanding effector T cells that attack cancer cells into more proliferative and persistent central memory T cell types that can self renew Central memory T cells can do almost everything, they will continue to exist, because they have high replication and proliferation ability, and can induce cell killing ability, so they can kill cancer cells very well, "the researchers said < br / > < br / > Yee said that natural T cells often lack permanence in vivo, so it is necessary to make patients' T cells attack cancer more effectively through cell therapy, i.e expansion in vitro and gene transformation of patients' T cells in some cases < br / > < br / >  < br / > Science: great progress! Reuse the chlorine toxin in scorpion venom, let car-t cells target and kill glioblastoma < br / > < br / > doi: 10.1126/ scitranslmed.aaw2672 In a new study, researchers from the U.S city of hope developed and tested the first use of Chlorotoxin, Cltx) leads T cells to target the chimeric antigen receptor (car) T cells (car-t) therapy of brain tumor cells, in which Chlorotoxin is a component of scorpion venom The research institute also opened the first clinical trial of the car-t cell therapy in human < br / > which was published in the Journal of Science Translational Medicine < br / > Cltx-car, by contrast, uses a 36 amino acid peptide sequence that was first isolated from the venom of the deadly scorpion and now functions as a car recognition domain According to the American Cancer Society, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of brain tumor and one of the most deadly human cancers When a tumor spreads throughout the brain, it is particularly difficult to treat Efforts to develop immunotherapy including car-t cells for GBM must also overcome the high heterogeneity within these < br / > tumors < br / > Image Source: NIH < br / > < br / >  < br / > nature: breakthrough! Scientists have successfully reprogrammed T cells to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy! < br / > In this study, we found or can provide a promising strategy for the development of more effective adoptive cell therapy, such as car T-cell therapy; immunotherapy aims to use the patient's own < br / > tumor < br / > specific T cells for cancer treatment, when these T cells are re imported into the patient's body before, The researchers will collect and expand the function of the tumor When the tumor is reinjected into the patient, some patients will have a significant response to the therapy, while the adoptive cell therapy may not be able to effectively resist the solid tumor < br / > < br / > researcher Hongbo Chi said that our goal is to increase the persistence and antitumor efficiency of tumor specific T cells This study found or can provide us with a way to reprogram tumor specific T cells to be as persistent as long-lived primitive or memory T cells, At the same time, it can also show strong killing activity like normal effector T cells < br / > < br / >, It may be able to reprogram car-t cells (cancer resistant immune cells) to extend their own activity and increase their potential to resist human cancer cells in laboratory cultures and mice < br / > But up to now, researchers are not clear about the molecular mechanism involved In this study, the researchers studied mice carrying human leukemia and bone cancer cells The researchers hope to start clinical trials on leukemia patients in the next 18 months, and finally expand the clinical trials of < br / > to solid tumor patients < br / > < br / >/ scitranslmed.aax9364 in a new study, researchers from the Francis Click Institute and King's College London found a unique type of immune cell in human breast tissue, And breast cancer patients with more of these immune cells are more likely to survive Relevant research results were published in the Journal of Science Translational Medicine on October 9, 2019 Specifically, these researchers identified a specific subtype of δ T cells in breast tissue: V δ 1 + γ δ T cells, and found that this subtype of δ T cells was associated with remission in patients with triple negative breast cancer As a special kind of immune cells, δ T cells have been previously identified in human intestine and skin, but this is the first time that they have been clearly described in human breast tissue < br / > < br / > confirming the presence of these specific immune cells in human breast tissue is an exciting first step, according to the researchers We have learned in animal model studies that δ T cells may play an important role in killing < br / > tumors < br /, but this is the first clear evidence that they may also play this role in human breast cancer This discovery opens the door for us to study new ways to deal with this devastating disease < br / > < br / >
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