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    Home > Food News > Nutrition News > Studies have shown that breastfeeding can prevent type 1 diabetes, but milk increases the risk of disease

    Studies have shown that breastfeeding can prevent type 1 diabetes, but milk increases the risk of disease

    • Last Update: 2021-10-10
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    A new study published at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) held online this year shows that breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D)
    .
    However, drinking more than two to three glasses of milk a day during childhood will increase the chance of developing T1D

    .

    In T1D, the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas
    .
    This prevents the body from producing enough hormones to regulate blood sugar levels

    .

    What triggers the immune system's attack is unclear, but it is believed to be related to genetic predispositions and environmental triggers (such as viruses or food)
    .
    In some cases, this can happen to people who are not genetically predisposed

    .

    T1D is the most common type of diabetes in children, and its incidence is on the rise worldwide
    .
    It is estimated that in Europe and the United States, the number of young people suffering from this disease is increasing at a rate of 3.
    4% per year

    "Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease that requires life-long treatment," said Ms.
    Anna-Maria Lampsy of the Institute of Environmental Medicine at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, who led the study

    .
    "Over time, high blood sugar levels can damage the heart, eyes, feet, and kidneys, and shorten life expectancy

    .

    "Understanding more causes is the key to preventing type 1 diabetes and its complications
    .

    "The identification of food and other environmental triggers that can be changed will be particularly valuable
    .
    "

    Many foods are related to pancreatic islet autoimmunity (attack on insulin-producing cells) and T1D, but no link has been determined, and the existence of this link is still controversial
    .

    In the first study in this regard, Ms.
    Lampsey and colleagues at Karolinska Institute conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing studies to determine which foods are always associated with T1D

    .

    Search the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, from formation to October 2020, for research on diet, T1D and islet autoimmunity
    .

    Of the 5935 studies identified, 152 were eligible for inclusion
    .
    The analysis estimated the extent to which 27 dietary components increase or decrease the risk of T1D

    .
    This includes foods eaten by mothers during pregnancy, foods eaten during infancy and childhood, and breastfeeding

    .

    Infants who have been breastfed for a long time and those who have been exclusively breastfed are less likely to develop T1D
    .

    Those who have been breastfed for at least 6-12 months are less likely to develop T1D than those who have been breastfed for less than 6 months (61% less)
    .
    Children who only receive breastfeeding in the first 2-3 months are 31% less likely to develop diabetes than those who do not receive exclusive breastfeeding

    .

    Researchers say that breastfeeding promotes the maturation of the baby's immune system
    .
    In addition, breast milk can strengthen the baby's intestinal microbiota-bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms living in the digestive tract, which helps regulate the immune system

    .

    The high consumption of milk and dairy products such as butter, cheese, yogurt and ice cream in childhood (under 15 years of age) is related to the high risk of islet autoimmunity and T1D
    .

    For example, those who drink at least two to three glasses of milk a day (a cup = about 200 ml) are 78% more likely to develop T1D than those who drink less than this amount of milk
    .

    The reason behind this association is unclear, but some studies have shown that amino acids in milk (a component of protein) can trigger the immune system to attack the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas
    .

    The premature introduction of milk in the diet is also associated with a high risk of T1D
    .
    Those who started drinking milk when they were two or three months old were 31% less likely to develop T1D than those who started drinking milk earlier

    .

    Later, the introduction of gluten into the diet reduced the chance of developing T1D by more than half
    .
    Babies who started eating gluten-containing foods (such as cereals, bread, pastries, biscuits, and pasta) at 3-6 months of age were 54% less likely to develop T1D than those who started eating these foods earlier

    .

    Waiting until the child is 4 to 6 months old before introducing fruit into their diet will reduce their likelihood of developing T1D by 53%
    .

    The authors of the study said that it is unclear whether delaying the intake of these foods directly protects infants from T1D, or whether prolonged breastfeeding is beneficial to infants
    .

    The age of intake of formula milk, meat and vegetables is not related to the risk of T1D
    .
    The mother’s intake of gluten and vitamin D during pregnancy has no connection with the child’s risk of developing the disease

    .

    Ms.
    Lampsey concluded: "Infant and childhood diets may affect the risk of type 1 diabetes

    .
    The most powerful findings are the beneficial effects of breastfeeding and the harmful effects of early intake of milk, gluten and fruits

    .

    "However, the quality of most evidence so far is limited, and further high-quality research is necessary before making any specific dietary recommendations
    .
    "

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