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    Home > Biochemistry News > Biotechnology News > The older you get, the more difficult it is to produce new neurons, because immune cells invade the brain

    The older you get, the more difficult it is to produce new neurons, because immune cells invade the brain

    • Last Update: 2020-06-19
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    A study published today in nature, a leading academic journal, found an important factor in the decline of new neuron production with aging through single cell sequence analysisResearchers at Stanford University found that in old mice, immune cells can break through the blood-brain barrier and invade the brain, interfering with the proliferation of neural stem cellsThis finding may provide a potential therapeutic target for cognitive impairment related to aging< br / > Professor Anne brunet focuses on the mechanism of aging and longevityShe and her colleagues focus on the "origin" of new neurons in the mouse brain, known as the subventricular zone (SVZ)In the adult brain, neural stem cells here continue to produce new neurons< br / > the researchers compared the composition of brain cells in the SVZ region between 3-month-old mice and 28-29-month-old miceThe RNA sequence analysis of 14685 single cells showed that in the aging brain, the number of activated neural stem cells and neural precursor cells decreased, which means the number of new neurons decreased< br / > at the same time, they observed that there was a kind of immune cells in the aging brain, especially T cells with high expression of CD8, which almost did not exist in the SVZ area of young mice< br / > ▲ compared with young mice, the neural stem cell lineage in SVZ area of brain in aging mice was significantly reduced, and T cells were significantly increased (photo source: reference [1]) < br / > this result surprised the researchers, because it is well known that under normal circumstances, due to the role of blood-brain barrier, immune cells stay in the blood vessels and do not contact with nerve cells directly< br / > further analysis of SVZ region in young and aging mice showed that in aging brain, these T cells were next to neural stem cellsIn the words of the researchers, T cells "infiltrate" this areaThe results of < br / > ▲ staining showed that the number of T cells (white) increased in the aging brain, next to the neural stem cells (purple) (photo source: reference [1]) < br / > while the results of the study on human brain showed that there was also infiltration of T cells in the lateral ventricles of the elderlyWhat do these "unexpected" T cells do in the neurogenesis area? < br / > compared with T cells in the same brain region in the blood vessels, the researchers found that T cells entering the brain release a signal molecule, interferon γThis cytokine is usually produced by T cells after they recognize antigens, but what role it plays in the brain is unclear< br / > single cell transcriptome data showed that a part of neural stem cells in the same region with T cells expressed a large number of IFN γ receptors and genes related to response to IFN signaling pathwayMonitoring the division of these neural stem cells in vivo showed that their proliferation ability was significantly weaker than those neural stem cells with low response to IFN - γ< br / >Do they reduce the proliferation of neural stem cells? To test this possibility, the researchers designed an experiment in which T cells were fed into the brain of young miceIt was found that the proliferation of neural stem cells in the brain of young mice decreased with the increase of response to interferon< br / > however, the experiment of culturing T cells and neural stem cells together in vitro further confirmed that T cells can directly interfere with the proliferation of neural stem cells through interferon γ< br / >? Researchers say such fascinating questions are yet to be studied< br / > this discovery has attracted the attention of many scientists in this fieldProfessor Song Hongjun, from the field of neurobiology and stem cells at the University of Pennsylvania, expressed his opinion in nature at the same time, saying that the relevant results "may be used to develop new therapies for the immune system to combat the systemic aging related stem cell dysfunction"< br / > references < br / > [1] Ben dulken et al., (2019) single cell analysis reeals T cell information in old neurogenics natureNatureDoi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1362-5 < br / > [2] Hongjun song et al., (2019) T cell intrinsic stem cells in old brainsNatureDoi: 10.1038/d41586-019-01832-0
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