echemi logo
  • Product
  • Supplier
  • Inquiry
    Home > Active Ingredient News > Study of Nervous System > The "preference" of experimental mice for women and the "dislike" of men directly affected the results of drug development experiments

    The "preference" of experimental mice for women and the "dislike" of men directly affected the results of drug development experiments

    • Last Update: 2022-09-22
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
    Search more information of high quality chemicals, good prices and reliable suppliers, visit

    Written by Jia Yu Geng

    Edited by wang multi-fish

    Typography water written

    As we all know, the same drug, the effect will vary from person to person, and even by gender

    Like many drugs that work for men, they may not work for women

    Similarly, there will be "gender differences"
    in how people respond to drugs.

    This sentence may sound like a sick sentence, but it actually happens in
    experimental animals.
    Ketamine (KET) is a powerful and fast-acting anesthetic

    Studies in recent years have found that it is also an ideal antidepressant drug that can produce antidepressant effects within a few hours
    Most of the researchers in Professor Todd Gould's lab in Professor Todd Gould's lab at the University of Maryland School of Medicine are women

    When they repeated the ketamine study in mice, the results often ended in the ineffectiveness of the drug; When male experimenters performed the same operation on mice, the antidepressant effects of ketamine continued to work
    in mice.

    To that end, the team also asked other labs in the same field and found the same problem: mice generally showed more fear and nervousness in front of male experimenters; In front of female experimenters, it is much more
    relaxed and comfortable.
    However, whether this behavioral response of mice to people of different sexes will really affect the results of the experiment is an open question

    In addition, ketamine in some human patients, there is also a problem of not being able to produce antidepressant effects
    On August 30, 2022, Professor Todd Gould's Lab, together with Associate Professor Scott Thompson et al.
    , published a paper titled Experimenters' sex modulates mouse behaviors and neural responses to ketamine via corticotropin in Nature Neuroscience Releasing Factor's research papers
    The latest study confirms that the sex of human experimenters influences the behavior and response of mice after ketamine and its bioactive metabolites are administered

    The study also found that a specific region in the mouse brain is key to ketamine's efficacy and identified the mechanism behind this action, thus providing a strategy
    for human patients who did not respond to ketamine treatment.
    Experimental results that cannot be replicated are most likely due to some unknown experimental variables that are not controlled

    However, the sex of the experimenter is rarely considered a biological variable that can influence the results of the experiment, and is usually not taken into

    But in order to obtain actionable data to advance the research, Professor Todd Gould's team decided to systematically document these phenomena and investigate the causes
    In the new study, they first looked at the mice: in front of the mice were swabs that had been wiped on the skin of women or men (elbow sockets, wrists, and behind the ears), which swabs the mice preferred to touch

    The results showed that both male and female mice consistently showed a preference
    for swabs with a female odor.
    This preference may be olfactory-driven, as it is not observed in mice whose use of zinc sulfate in the nose causes olfactory impairment

    In addition, when mice were allowed to choose between swabs moistened with water (control odor) and swabs that had been exposed to female or male skin, the mice showed disgust for swabs that had been exposed to men; Preference was shown for swabs that had been exposed to women

    Similarly, mice showed avoidance of T-shirts worn by male experimenters; Female experimenters showed a preference for wearing T-shirts

    Professor Todd Gould said that mice have a greater sense of smell and their sensitivity to pheromones (airborne hormones) than humans, so it's not surprising that they respond differently
    to various odors.
    Next, the researchers assessed the effect
    of the experimenter's sex on the mice's response to ketamine administration.

    Experiments conducted in multiple laboratories confirmed that mice treated by male experimenters in biosafety cabinets responded
    to ketamine.

    The researchers then investigated several potential factors involved in modulating the ketamine response to determine the mechanisms
    behind this behavior in animals.

    They eventually found that the disgust and stress sensitivity caused by human male odors are mediated by activation of neurons in the endostatic cortex (EC) projected onto the mouse hippocampus CA1, an area previously thought to be associated with depression; Therefore, activation of the CRF EC-CA1 pathway is an important determinant
    of the antidepressant effect of ketamine.
    The researchers believe that ketamine combined with CRF receptor agonists may be a new way to treat mood disorders

    Subsequently, a female experimenter injected CRF into mice while giving them ketamine in a biosafety cabinet, and the results showed that the mice responded
    to ketamine as if they were taking antidepressants.

    Polymnia Georgiou, a former postdoc in Todd Gould's lab, said that some people may have higher or lower CRF levels, and if treated with some CRF-related chemicals, perhaps induce the effects of ketamine to make people who do not respond well to ketamine antidepressant treatment

    In addition, the antidepressant effect of ketamine usually lasts from 1 to 3 days, but with combined CRF administration, it is possible to prolong the antidepressant effect and make it last longer
    These exciting new findings underscore the importance of basic research and lay the groundwork
    for future clinical innovations.

    The discovery of an unexpected interaction between the mice studied and the sexes of the dosing experimenter highlights the importance of assessing unintended effects
    Thesis link:
    open reprint welcome to forward to the circle of friends and WeChat group

    This article is an English version of an article which is originally in the Chinese language on and is provided for information purposes only. This website makes no representation or warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, completeness ownership or reliability of the article or any translations thereof. If you have any concerns or complaints relating to the article, please send an email, providing a detailed description of the concern or complaint, to A staff member will contact you within 5 working days. Once verified, infringing content will be removed immediately.

    Contact Us

    The source of this page with content of products and services is from Internet, which doesn't represent ECHEMI's opinion. If you have any queries, please write to It will be replied within 5 days.

    Moreover, if you find any instances of plagiarism from the page, please send email to with relevant evidence.