Three achievements have been published in the study of human microbiology in the last ten years
Last Update: 2020-06-19
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The latest issue of nature focuses on ihmp (picture source: nature) < br / > the ihmp was initiated by the National Institutes of health in 2007The results of the first stage have brought us a lot of new knowledge that we have never seen before: under normal circumstances, everyone's body is an ecological environment with rich diversityThere are many kinds of microorganisms with a number of billions coexisting with the human body, and their composition varies according to individual, group and environmentHuman microbiome will affect human health, but also in inflammation, metabolic disorders and other diseases are disturbed< br / > the second stage started in 2013Scientists embarked on a new journey and began to explore the changes of human microbiome in the process of disease by using new multi group research methods< br / >(picture source: nature) < br / > this project now brings three achievements just completedA team of scientists from several research institutions explored the changes in the human microbiome in three situations - inflammatory bowel disease, pre diabetes, pregnancy and preterm deliveryThese new findings will help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and hopefully promote the treatment of the disease< br / > the first paper focused on inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitisSuch chronic diseases affect millions of people around the worldInflammatory bowel disease is very complex in clinical, immunology, molecular, genetics and microbiology< br / > Professor Curtis huttenhower and colleagues from Chen Zengxi School of public health, Harvard University, USA analyzed the feces, biopsies and blood samples collected regularly in 132 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and healthy control group over a yearResearchers have developed a unique biotechnology toolbox to understand the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiome, the changes in molecular activities of host and microbiome, and the changes in gene expression during the active phase of the disease< br / >< br / > the second paper focuses on pre diabetes Diabetes is also a complex disease with multiple factors, affecting more than 400 million people around the world Pre diabetes is a high-risk state of type 2 diabetes 70% of pre diabetes patients will eventually develop into type 2 diabetes, but they are usually not diagnosed Focusing on this early stage can help detect type 2 diabetes early < br / > Professor Michael Snyder, director of the center for genomics and individualized medicine of Stanford University, led the research team to conduct a four-year study on 106 healthy people and pre diabetes individuals, analyzing the changes of transcriptome, metabolome, cytokine and proteome, and the changes of microbiome to reveal the molecular changes, genetic changes and microbial changes They found that inflammatory markers such as interleukin-1 receptor agonists (IL-1ra) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and specific immune signal transduction can be used as individual molecular characteristics before the onset of disease, suggesting the law of early disease development < br / > another paper published in nature medicine describes the impact of vaginal microorganisms on the risk of premature birth < br / > preterm birth refers to the birth of a fetus less than 37 weeks gestation There are 15 million premature babies in the world every year, and the incidence of premature birth is more than 10% Premature birth is an important cause of neonatal death professor Gregory Buck and colleagues of the Federal University of Virginia conducted a study during the whole pregnancy period of 1527 pregnant women Through the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA, macrogenome, metatranscriptome and cytokine spectrum, they revealed the changes of vaginal microbiome related to the risk of preterm birth For example, the level of Lactobacillus crispatus in preterm pregnant women is lower than that in full-term pregnant women, and there are many kinds of bacteria in excess These findings will help to provide guidance for the prediction of premature birth in advance < br / > a schematic diagram of the relationship between vaginal microbiome and host factors in pregnancy and preterm birth (image source: nature) < br / > at the same time, the author of ihmp project, Dr Rita Proctor of the National Institutes of health, also published a review in nature Looking forward to the next decade, she said, "I believe that only when we start to understand the complex and changing ecological and evolutionary relationships between microorganisms and between microorganisms and hosts instead of just knowing the species name classification of microorganisms, will we find interventions to treat diabetes, cancer and autoimmune diseases." < br / > the previous research of human microbiome has made us realize that microbiome is our important "life partner" in the last decade Now, through interdisciplinary cooperation in ecology, microbiology, biomedicine, computer biology and other fields, we will have a better understanding of how to keep a good relationship with these lifelong partners, take care of each other and share happiness < br / > reference materials < br / >  the integrated human organism project Nature Doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1238-8 < br / >  Jason Lloyd price et al., (2019) multi omics of the guts micro ecosystem in informatics bowel diseases Nature Doi: 10.1038 / s41586-019-1237-9 < br / >  Wenyu Zhou et al, (2019) Longitudinal multi-omics of host–microbe dynamics in prediabetes Nature Doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1236-x Jennifer M Fettweis et al., (2019) the nominal microorganism and preterm birth Nature medicine Doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0450-2 < br / >  LITA Proctor (2019) what's next for the human microorganism? Nature Doi: 10.1038/d4158-019-01654-0 < br / > original title < br / > today's nature cover: more than ten years to a new destination, and three achievements have been published in the research of human Microbiology
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