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    Home > Food News > Food Flavorings News > Using highly hydrogenated soybean oil, camphor seed oil and perilla oil to prepare zero-trans plastic fat rich in α-linolenic acid and medium-chain fatty acids through the Lipozyme TL IM enzymatic method

    Using highly hydrogenated soybean oil, camphor seed oil and perilla oil to prepare zero-trans plastic fat rich in α-linolenic acid and medium-chain fatty acids through the Lipozyme TL IM enzymatic method

    • Last Update: 2021-04-17
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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      01

      Background introduction
     
      Plastic fats , such as shortening, artificial butter advent of such great to meet the consumers of different food processing needs, but the plastic fat is usually prepared by the hydrogenation of this process there will always be trans fatty acids generated.
    Trans-
    fatty acids will bring great damage to the human body, for example, lead to diabetes, obesity disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
    Medium chain fatty acid (of MCFA) synthetic
    glycerol triesters, in human intestinal rapidly hydrolyzed and reduce the accumulation, so prepared from fatty acids enriched in the medium chain fatty acids and plastically zero trans fat margarine and shortenings having desirable physical and Nutritional properties.
    Currently, enzymatic transesterification is an alternative method for producing such plastic fats.
     
      02

      research method
     
      In this study, Lipozyme TL IM was used to combine different mass ratios (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100) of highly hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO), camphor seed oil (CCSO) and Perilla oil (PO) is mixed and catalyzed for 8 hours to prepare zero-trans fatty acid plastic fat rich in α- linolenic acid (ALA).
    After the reaction, the physical and chemical properties of the transesterified product and the physical mixture were measured, including fatty acid composition, triglyceride composition, solid fat content, sliding melting point, tocopherol content, and solid fat crystal structure.
     
      03

      results and analysis
     
      1) The composition of triglycerides is extremely complex, and it is difficult to accurately determine the types of plastic fatty triglycerides.
    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to determine HSO, CCSO, PO, and the physical mixing of the three according to the mass ratio of 60:40:100.
    The equivalent carbon number of the transesterified product (Figure 1).
    The results found that the equivalent carbon number of the product after transesterification decreased, indicating that a certain amount of medium-chain triglycerides were produced by the reaction.
    Compared with the physical mixing method, the plastic fat prepared by the enzymatic transesterification method has LLL/POLn, PSP, PLL /LPL, SOO/OSO, LOO/OLO and POS content has increased.
     
      2) Measure the solid fat content (SFC) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determine the sliding melting point (SMP) according to AOCS.
    When the temperature rises to 40 ℃, the SFC of the transesterified product is significantly reduced, and is more than that of the physical mixed SMP.
    Low (Figure 2).
    This is related to the change in fatty acid composition after transesterification.
     
      3) The crystal structure is the most important functional characteristic index of shortening and margarine.
    The common crystal structures of solid fats are α, β, and β'.
    Among them, α-type fat has the worst thermal stability and the lowest melting point; β has the strongest thermal stability and the highest melting point; β'is between the two and has a medium melting point.
    It can give margarine a good taste, and it is not easy to grind and has a small graininess.
    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystal structure of plastic fat prepared by physical mixing and enzymatic transesterification (Figure 3).
    The results show that the plastic fat prepared by the physical mixing method has a strong short pitch at 4.
    59? (β), 3.
    87? and 3.
    79? (β'), while the enzymatic transesterification products are at 3.
    83? and 4.
    21? (β').
    ) Shows a stronger short pitch than at 4.
    59? (β).
    This is because during the enzymatic transesterification reaction, the fatty acids in the triglycerides are rearranged, and the symmetry of the newly formed triglycerides is reduced, resulting in a decrease in the β-type crystal structure, and a significant increase in the β'-type crystal structure, thereby increasing plasticity The palatability of fat.
     
      4) When the mass ratio of HSO:CCSO:PO is 70:30:100, the crystal structure of the biological transesterification product and the physical mixture is obviously different.
    Microscopically, the physical mixture was observed to be spherical crystals (Figure 4(A)), while more minute crystals were observed in the transesterified product (Figure 4(B)).
    This indicates that the transesterified product contains a higher level of β'form, which can better meet the raw material requirements for preparing margarine.

      Figure 1 The highest point is HSO, CCSO, PO, and the equivalent carbon number of the product after the physical mixing and transesterification reaction of the three according to the mass ratio of 60:40:100

      Figure 2 Solid fat content of plastic fat prepared by physical mixing method and enzymatic transesterification method with different mass ratios of HSO, CCSO, and PO (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100)

      Figure 3 X-ray diffraction patterns of products of different mass ratio physical mixing method and enzymatic transesterification

      Figure 4 The crystal structure of the physical blend (A) and the transesterified product (B) with a mass ratio of HSO:CCSO:PO of 70:30:100

      04

      in conclusion
     
      In this study, plastic fat was prepared from HSO, CCSO and PO with different mass ratios of 60:40:100, 70:30:100 and 80:20:100 by enzymatic transesterification.
    The product contains approximately 8.
    58-17.
    98% MCFA and 30% ALA.
    On the other hand, the product has ideal physical properties.
    The results show that the transesterified product is more suitable for preparing margarine, and the physical mixture is more suitable for the raw material of shortening.
    However, the cost of expensive enzyme preparations still limits their application in the food industry, so how to improve the efficiency of enzymes and reduce processing costs will become the focus of research.
      01
      01



      Background introduction
      Background introduction
     
      Plastic fats , such as shortening, artificial butter advent of such great to meet the consumers of different food processing needs, but the plastic fat is usually prepared by the hydrogenation of this process there will always be trans fatty acids generated.
    Trans-
    fatty acids will bring great damage to the human body, for example, lead to diabetes, obesity disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
    Medium chain fatty acid (of MCFA) synthetic
    glycerol triesters, in human intestinal rapidly hydrolyzed and reduce the accumulation, so prepared from fatty acids enriched in the medium chain fatty acids and plastically zero trans fat margarine and shortenings having desirable physical and Nutritional properties.
    Currently, enzymatic transesterification is an alternative method for producing such plastic fats.
    Fat butter consumer food processing trans fatty fatty fat glycerol
     
      02
     02



      research method
      research method
     
      In this study, Lipozyme TL IM was used to combine different mass ratios (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100) of highly hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO), camphor seed oil (CCSO) and Perilla oil (PO) is mixed and catalyzed for 8 hours to prepare zero-trans fatty acid plastic fat rich in α- linolenic acid (ALA).
    After the reaction, the physical and chemical properties of the transesterified product and the physical mixture were measured, including fatty acid composition, triglyceride composition, solid fat content, sliding melting point, tocopherol content, and solid fat crystal structure.
    Soybean Oil Perilla Linolenic Acid
     
      03
      03



      results and analysis
      results and analysis
     
      1) The composition of triglycerides is extremely complex, and it is difficult to accurately determine the types of plastic fatty triglycerides.
    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to determine HSO, CCSO, PO, and the physical mixing of the three according to the mass ratio of 60:40:100.
    The equivalent carbon number of the transesterified product (Figure 1).
    The results found that the equivalent carbon number of the product after transesterification decreased, indicating that a certain amount of medium-chain triglycerides were produced by the reaction.
    Compared with the physical mixing method, the plastic fat prepared by the enzymatic transesterification method has LLL/POLn, PSP, PLL /LPL, SOO/OSO, LOO/OLO and POS content has increased.
     
      2) Measure the solid fat content (SFC) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determine the sliding melting point (SMP) according to AOCS.
    When the temperature rises to 40 ℃, the SFC of the transesterified product is significantly reduced, and is more than that of the physical mixed SMP.
    Low (Figure 2).
    This is related to the change in fatty acid composition after transesterification.
     
      3) The crystal structure is the most important functional characteristic index of shortening and margarine.
    The common crystal structures of solid fats are α, β, and β'.
    Among them, α-type fat has the worst thermal stability and the lowest melting point; β has the strongest thermal stability and the highest melting point; β'is between the two and has a medium melting point.
    It can give margarine a good taste, and it is not easy to grind and has a small graininess.
    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the crystal structure of plastic fat prepared by physical mixing and enzymatic transesterification (Figure 3).
    The results show that the plastic fat prepared by the physical mixing method has a strong short pitch at 4.
    59? (β), 3.
    87? and 3.
    79? (β'), while the enzymatic transesterification products are at 3.
    83? and 4.
    21? (β').
    ) Shows a stronger short pitch than at 4.
    59? (β).
    This is because during the enzymatic transesterification reaction, the fatty acids in the triglycerides are rearranged, and the symmetry of the newly formed triglycerides is reduced, resulting in a decrease in the β-type crystal structure, and a significant increase in the β'-type crystal structure, thereby increasing plasticity The palatability of fat.
     
      4) When the mass ratio of HSO:CCSO:PO is 70:30:100, the crystal structure of the biological transesterification product and the physical mixture is obviously different.
    Microscopically, the physical mixture was observed to be spherical crystals (Figure 4(A)), while more minute crystals were observed in the transesterified product (Figure 4(B)).
    This indicates that the transesterified product contains a higher level of β'form, which can better meet the raw material requirements for preparing margarine.



      Figure 1 The highest point is HSO, CCSO, PO, and the equivalent carbon number of the product after the physical mixing and transesterification reaction of the three according to the mass ratio of 60:40:100
      Figure 1 The highest point is HSO, CCSO, PO, and the equivalent carbon number of the product after the physical mixing and transesterification reaction of the three according to the mass ratio of 60:40:100



      Figure 2 Solid fat content of plastic fat prepared by physical mixing method and enzymatic transesterification method with different mass ratios of HSO, CCSO, and PO (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100)
      Figure 2 Solid fat content of plastic fat prepared by physical mixing method and enzymatic transesterification method with different mass ratios of HSO, CCSO, and PO (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100)



      Figure 3 X-ray diffraction patterns of products of different mass ratio physical mixing method and enzymatic transesterification
      Figure 3 X-ray diffraction patterns of products of different mass ratio physical mixing method and enzymatic transesterification



      Figure 4 The crystal structure of the physical blend (A) and the transesterified product (B) with a mass ratio of HSO:CCSO:PO of 70:30:100
      Figure 4 The crystal structure of the physical blend (A) and the transesterified product (B) with a mass ratio of HSO:CCSO:PO of 70:30:100



      04
      04



      in conclusion
      in conclusion
     
      In this study, plastic fat was prepared from HSO, CCSO and PO with different mass ratios of 60:40:100, 70:30:100 and 80:20:100 by enzymatic transesterification.
    The product contains approximately 8.
    58-17.
    98% MCFA and 30% ALA.
    On the other hand, the product has ideal physical properties.
    The results show that the transesterified product is more suitable for preparing margarine, and the physical mixture is more suitable for the raw material of shortening.
    However, the cost of expensive enzyme preparations still limits their application in the food industry, so how to improve the efficiency of enzymes and reduce processing costs will become the focus of research.
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