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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Study of Nervous System > "Watchdog" of small glial cells in the olfactory ball to protect the brain from infection

    "Watchdog" of small glial cells in the olfactory ball to protect the brain from infection

    • Last Update: 2020-06-16
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Airborne viruses have been challenging people's immune systems, but it is rare to see viral infections that cause neurological diseasesThis means that the immune system in this region must be very good at protecting the brain
    More experiments have shown that immune cells in the central nervous system, small glial cells, do not do enough to help the immune system identify viruses and to some extent limit the damage of neurons themselvesRetaining neurons is important because, unlike cells in most other tissues, most neuronal populations do not recover
    As a result, the central nervous system has evolved a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogensHowever, when airborne viruses are inhaled, they pass through the nasal cavity and interact with the olfactory epithelial tissue responsible for the sense of smellNeurons at the edge of the olfactory system extend small protrusions through the bone layer of the nasal cavityThese projections enter the brain, exposing the brain to the smell scents of the airNeurons in olfactory epithelial cells also provide a direct access to the brain, providing an easy way for viruses to bypass traditional central nervous system disorders
    If a virus infects neurons suspended in the respiratory tract, the virus can enter the brain and eventually cause encephalitis or meningitisThe researchers say they are interested in understanding the immune response at the interface between the olfactory neurons at the end of the olfactory ball and the rest of the brain
    Researchers led by NINDS senior researcher DrDorian McGavern found that CD8 T cells are part of the immune system responsible for controlling the virus and are important for protecting the brain after nasal tissue infectionMcGavin's team used advanced fluorescence microscopy technology to see in real time how CD8 T cells protect the brain from nasal virus infections
    Interestingly, CD8 T cells do not appear to interact directly with neurons in the major infected cell populationInstead, they come into contact with small glial cells, the central nervous system's immune cells that act like garbage collectors by removing cell fragments and dead cell material When a viral infection occurs, small glial cells appear to absorb the viral material in their surroundings and present it to the immune system as if they had been infected
    In this way, infected olfactory neurons can "pass" viral particles to small glial cells, which can then be detected by T cells T-cells then react by releasing antiviral molecules to remove the virus from neurons in a way that does not kill cells Since small glial cells are renewable cell types, this interaction makes sense from an evolutionary point of view The immune system has developed a strategy to preserve neurons at all costs This study proves that small glial cells can "absorb strikes" from neurons by involving T cells, and then make the antiviral program work
    Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, the recent respiratory virus infection has caused great concern Dr McGavin noted that although the virus has not been studied in these experiments, some of the symptoms it has produced suggest that the same mechanism described here may be working One of the interesting symptoms associated with the new coronavirus infection is that many people lose their sense of smell and taste This suggests that the virus is not only a respiratory pathogen, but may also target or destroy olfactory sensory neurons
    It is worth noting that a wide range of infections of olfactory sensory neurons, whether it is the neo-coronavirus, the virus used in this study or any other similar viral infection, may destroy people's sense of smell But unlike other neurons in the central nervous system, these start in the nose and eventually regenerate the sensory neurons of the brain after the infection is removed What's more, the immune response described by the researchers does not protect both olfactory sensory neurons or olfactory This is not necessarily a long-term problem, because once the virus has been treated, these sensory neurons can be replaced The key is to protect the brain and central nervous system from encephalitis or meningitis, and people's sense of smell can often be repaired over time And given the importance of small glial cells in stimulating antiviral responses, factors that may cause depletion or loss of function may increase susceptibility to central nervous system infections
    Reference: Moseman, EA et al T cell cell engagement of cross-on-the-head microglia the sofs from the brain of the nasal virus infection Science Immunology June 5, 2020 DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abb1817 Source: Translational
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