World Science and Technology Development Review 2020 Biotechnology
Last Update: 2021-01-13
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research anti-cancer, anti-aging difficulties ultra-high-resolution microscope to see live cells
This newspaper's Israel correspondent Mao Li
Tel Aviv University was the first to prove that crispr gene editing technology can effectively destroy the DNA of animal cancer cells, while keeping the surrounding cell tissue intact; Sheba Medical Center is the world's first experimental "reverse personalized drug" (RPM) for the treatment of cancer patients, Tel Aviv University has developed a rapid detector that can detect in real time whether there are cancer cell residues in the abdominal cavity after the removal of malignant tumors, and designed a nano-vector drug system for the treatment of melanoma, which is expected to be extended to the treatment of other diseases.
Israel Polytechnic University has developed a new method for rapid and inexpensive analysis of blood samples, which will be used first in early detection of malignant tumors, and a new self-propelled microcomputer that can directly penetrate drugs, DNA and chemicals into specific single cells through electroporation technology.
has developed a unique way to produce small fragments of the virus in artificial cells, addressing the security of research into highly pathogenic viruses, and they have found that bacteria produce compounds that protect themselves when attacked by viruses, an antiviral mechanism that promises to be key to responding to new coronavirus and other viruses. A team of biophysicists and doctors has developed mathematical models that predict the success of antibiotic treatments for certain bacteria and help accurately select antibiotics for a patient's condition. researchers at
Bayland University have confirmed the theory of human aging 15 years ago: over time, it is cell coordination, not cellular function, that actually declines, promising new ideas for treating aging; Tel Aviv University and Shamir Medical Center have demonstrated that oxygen alone can successfully reverse the body's aging process; and Israeli and Ukrainian researchers have for the first time induced long-term declines in metabolic rates and body temperature in laboratory mice, which are believed to keep them healthy and live longer.
based on research from the Weizmann Institute of Science, ImmunoBrain Checkpoint has developed a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease and plans to conduct clinical trials.
The Israeli Institute of Technology has developed a new microscope (DeepSTORM3D) that can obtain ultra-high-resolution 3D images of living cells. The Jerusalem Institute of Technology, in collaboration with Cornell University in the United States, has obtained detailed structural images of the brains of adult zebrafish, a new breakthrough in the field of brain imaging.
Remilk produces cow-free milk protein, which, when mixed with other substances, produces milk, cheese, yogurt and ice cream with exactly the same properties, taste and structure.
found five key transcription factors to help colorectal cancer cells become normal
this newspaper's South Korean correspondent Yu Yu
Korea Institute of Science and Technology and Seoul Samsung Hospital jointly announced the successful development of an original technology to help colorectal cancer cells to normal colorectal cells transformation. The study found that five key transcription factors, CDX2, ELF3, HNF4G, PPARG and VDR, convert colorectal cancer cells into normal colorectal cells. The newly discovered factor called SETDB1 regulates the activity of the above transcription factors.
The United States
gene editing and cell research results of many major diseases research has made new progress
This newspaper's U.S. correspondent Liu Haiying
U.S. scientists not only through cancer test research confirmed the safety of CRISPR editing immune cells, but also For the first time, CRISPR-Cas9 gene therapy has been used directly in human clinical trials to treat the inherited eye disease Leber's congenital erythrosis (LCA10), and three patients with the disease have been cured using CRISPR gene editing technology.
In the development of new tools for gene editing, a study led by Professor Jennifer Dudner, winner of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, found an ultra-compact CRISPR-Cas system that could target a wider range of gene sequences than CRISPR-Cas9 and Cas12a and could be another powerful tool in the CRISPR gene editing toolbox.
In cell research, researchers at Boston University and Carnegie Mellon University have teamed up to develop new techniques for lung cell culture that allow cells to be purer and live longer, helping scientists better build lung disease models and advance lung disease research and treatment; This will greatly advance a thorough understanding of multiple biological systems; Researchers at Harvard University, using human pluripotent stem cells to grow skin "like organs" that can grow hair, will bring a tool for studying human skin development to deepen human understanding of disease modeling and reconstructive surgery; and researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have for the first time turned astrological glial cells into functional neurons, bringing great hope for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
american scientists have also made many achievements in the field of disease treatment, which is represented by cancer. They found the key molecule EphA2 protein for the development of cerebral malaria; the fatty acid γ DGLA), which kills human cancer cells; a new blood test that detects more than 50 cancers in advance; a new imaging technique that detects early warning signs of Alzheimer's disease; and a mechanism to suppress
virus transcription in patients who have not received antiretroviral therapy to control viral replication.
has made progress in developing a new type of chronic hepatitis B treatment drug gene therapy and immunotherapy
li Hongze, our correspondent in France, said
France continues to make progress in the field of biomedicine using gene editing technology. At the 2020 European Conference on Liver Academic Research (EASL 2020), French researchers proposed the use of CRISPR-cas9 to develop a new drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, which can target hepatitis B virus through gene editing and may produce surface antigens for hepatitis B.
addition, gene therapy is making progress. The Paris Institute of Vision, in collaboration with teams from the United States and The United States, successfully treated 37 patients with hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) by injecting viral vectors into patients' eyes using mitochondrial targeting technology, and 78% of the patients treated had significantly improved vision in both eyes.
little is known about the molecular mechanisms of immunotherapy to fight lymphoma. In a new study, researchers from France's National Centre for Scientific Research, the Pasteur Institute and the University of Bordeaux have for the first time observed the interaction between therapeutic antibodies and their target proteins, revealing therapeutic antibodies binding to human CD20 mechanisms, opening the way for the development of new treatments.
has developed the first anti-cancer nickel-based compound tumor detection and treatment has a new program
This newspaper's correspondent in Russia Dong Yingxuan
In 2020, Russia has made a lot of achievements in research and development, treatment of various types of cancer.
most notable is the development of the world's first nickel-based compound with anti-cancer effects by an international research team involved in Tyumen State University in Russia. The drug is cheaper and less harmful to patients, replacing platinum derivatives in the field and improving drug development without worrying about increased resistance to cancer cells and side effects.
In addition, researchers from the Moscow Institute of Engineering Physics of the Russian National University of Nuclear Research and the Moscow State Sechecheynov First Medical University proposed new methods for the diagnosis and treatment of precanceral lesions fluorescence and photodynamic internal medicine (PDT) and confirmed the effectiveness of the treatment in all female patients involved in the study.
Oriol State University in Russia has also developed an optical-based method for diagnosing liver tumors. This kind of tumor detection method is more accurate and can improve the treatment efficiency of liver cancer patients.
has developed a bio-monitoring fluorescent device that can be used to diagnose a variety of organ diseases
2020, the Ukrainian National institute of physics and biophysical applications
developed a fluorescent device that can be used to monitor ultra-low concentrations of acetone and ammonia molecules in exhaled gases and vapors.
can be used to diagnose liver and kidney insanity and lung cancer, acetone can be used for the diagnosis of diabetes, adenitis, heart failure and other diseases. Using the high sensitivity of fluorescent signals to certain reagents, based on the ability of organic dyes to interact with acetone and ammonia molecules and change their fluorescence response, Ukrainian researchers have developed a fluorescent device for detecting ultra-low concentrations of acetone and ammonia molecules. The "heart" of the device sensor is a sensitive film in the silicon dioxide substitut, which introduces the caramel family of organic dyes as a sensitive ingredient and quantum dots as fluorescent signal amplifiers.
found that Pg bacteria can cause Alzheimer's disease to transplant the first successful uterus of macaques
Chen Chao, Japan correspondent chen Chao
Japan Kyushu University, Beijing Polytechnic University and Jilin University joint research found for the first time, long-term to mice The pathogen of periodontology injected into the whole body, gum monocytobacteria (Pg bacteria), is produced outside the brain of normal middle-aged mice with the brain's elderly plaque component amyloid β (A beta) will be transported to the brain, causing Alzheimer's disease.
team, including Keiji University in Japan, carried out a uterine transplant using crab-eating macaques to successfully produce the world's first non-human primate after uterine transplantation.
Japan Institute of Science and Chemistry announced that the use of artificial induced ergonomic stem cells (iPS cells) technology, the development of high sensitivity to assess the function of the body's heart tissue, is expected to be used in the regenerative medicine of heart disease and the development of new drugs.
Osaka City University found that the hypertension drug "Miton Lalong" can extend the life of the worm, the effect of life extension is through mitochondrial stress response.
team at Kobe University and the University of Tokyo, we have found for the first time that normal pancreatic cell expression (P) RR is one of the root causes of cancer.
focuses on the theory of life evolution and cellular mechanisms To put silicon dioxide on proteins
the British correspondent Tian Discipline
2020 is the year that British scientists have doubled their achievements in the field of biotechnology research.
in the field of embryology, researchers used human cells to develop three-dimensional tissue models of early human embryonic development, marking an important step in simulating human development.
University of Oxford have studied how cells in the brain work together to connect memories of different experiences, allowing us to make escientistic assumptions in our daily lives.
University College London researchers used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to find "fingerprints" (early circulating biomarkers) representing prostate tissue in the blood that can be used to determine whether cancer cells are active and spreading.
british and Belgian scientists have worked together to create the first atlas of human thymus tissue, revealing the origin of T-cells, an important immune cell.
In order to overcome the shortcomings of vaccine preservation that requires low or ultra-low temperatures, the researchers cleverly put a silicon dioxide "coat" on the protein, and the structure of the vaccine remained intact even when heated to 100 degrees C or kept at room temperature for up to three years.
researchers found that between 3.5 billion and 2.5 billion years ago, the first two metabolic proteins in the evolution of life powered the formation of early life on Earth. The discovery could also act as a chemical signal to help cosmic explorers search for life on other planets.
University of Cambridge has found that mammalian subseeds play a greater role in evolution than previously thought, and the study could help predict species that should be protected in order to prevent their extinction or extinction.
researchers are using insects to turn wasted food into rations for livestock, a project that will play an active role in solving human food problems.
New Gene Sequencing Program uses blockchain to record unique genetic data from Brazilians
said Deng Guoqing, our correspondent in Brazil
and the Brazilian government encourages the use of biotechnology in areas such as human health, food safety, industrial products and environmental quality.
biotech company Portunus has launched a new gene sequencing program aimed at harnessing blockchain technology.
study has the potential not only to produce accurate genetic maps for Brazil, but also to have a significant impact on the self-organization of Brazilian society based on physiological characteristics, according to researchers at the Project.
Mapu institutes have made remarkable progress in the synthetic biology of genetics
Li Shan, our correspondent in Germany
In 2020, Germany has made great achievements in the field of brain science, and has made great progress in the field of genetics and synthetic biology.
The Max Planck Brain Institute has mapped the development of inhibitory neuron circuits and reported unique circuit formation principles that allow scientists to monitor changes in the structure of neuron networks over time, capturing moments when individuals grow and adapt to the environment. The study also found that zebrafish "perceive" the presence of specific species through specific mechanical stimuli, and that the level of expression of the neuropeptide Pth2 in the brain reflects the presence and density of other fish in the region.
Max Planck Institute for Human Cognition and Brain Sciences has successfully deciphered two tissue axes of the human brain, which are mainly genetically and evolutionaryly formed. The Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry and the Weizmann Institute for Science found that stable connections between nerve cells are the basis of memory. By developing a new 3D imaging method for calcium imaging in the body, the University of Technology Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology in Germany have found that dopamine-energy neurons can sensitively regulate sensory perception, allowing animals to adapt their behavioral decisions to their internal behavioral states.
Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine found that myelin optimizes information processing in the brain, and that nerve cells can only process time series of sound signals if they work with certain glial cells. The Max Planck Institute for Aging Biology and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden found that God
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