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The development of diabetes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.
Early life conditions are associated with diabetes risk in adulthood.
Birth weight is an important marker of early life development and has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease.
More scholars believe that birth weight may affect lifelong health
Lower birth weight may be associated with lower age at onset of type 2 diabetes and BMI at diagnosis, according to a study published in the journal Diabetes Medicine
The research was led by Professor Ewan R.
Pearson and colleagues at the University of Dundee School of Medicine in the United Kingdom
The researchers collected birth data from a population born in Dundee, Scotland, between 1952 and 1966, and compared it with a population with diabetes diagnosed in the National Health Service (NHS) between 1995 and March 2017
The study included 1509 patients with type 2 diabetes.
After multiple regression analysis, each average loss of 1 kg in birth weight was associated with an earlier diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by 0.
87 years (95%CI, 0.
4), and the BMI at the time of diagnosis was also higher.
Reduced by 1.
1% of the patients progressed to require insulin therapy during a median follow-up of 5.
For each 1-year delay in age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the risk of needing insulin therapy was reduced by 1.
9% in women (HR=0.
98; 95% CI, 0.
038) and by 33% in men (HR=0.
67; 95%) CI, 0.
84; P < .
001), while birth weight was not associated with the likelihood of needing insulin therapy
The researchers believe that younger diabetic patients with low birth weight have lower BMI, and this association is mediated through reduced beta cell function, as lower BMI and higher HDL are markers of insulin sensitivity
And this conjecture requires more research to explore the mechanisms behind these connections
Large-scale Chinese study: Baby birth weight is related to lifetime diabetes risk.
In 2019, a Chinese study published in the Journal of Diabetes showed that low birth weight (<2500g) or high birthweight (≥3500g) of babies was associated with adulthood.
There is a significant correlation with the risk of developing diabetes
This is a large cohort study in a Chinese population
Overall, people with low (<2500g) or high birthweight (≥3500g) had a significantly increased risk of diabetes in adulthood compared with those with birthweights within the normal range (2500-3499g)
Among them, the highest risk is the population with low birth weight and later overweight/obesity
However, the results of the gender subgroup analysis showed that among the four male cohorts, the researchers observed a significant increase in diabetes risk only in the cohort with a birth weight of <2500g
Therefore, there appears to be a "girl over boys" phenomenon between birth weight and diabetes risk
In conclusion, the above studies suggest that, for diabetes prevention, attention should be paid to the birth weight of infants
Developing good eating and exercise habits in your child, and keeping your weight within a healthy range, will greatly reduce your risk of diabetes
References:  Paulina C, Donnelly LA, Pearson E R.
The impact of birthweight on subsequent phenotype of type 2 diabetes in later life[J].
Diabetic Medicine, 2022: e14792.
 Chunyan HU, Yiming MU, Qin WAN, et al.
Association between Birthweight and Diabetes: the Role of Body Mass Index and Life>