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    Home > Agriculture News > Fertilizer News > Inventory of measures to achieve zero growth of chemical fertilizers and reduce irrational application of chemical fertilizers

    Inventory of measures to achieve zero growth of chemical fertilizers and reduce irrational application of chemical fertilizers

    • Last Update: 2022-03-28
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Chemical fertilizer is an important means of agricultural production and the "food" of grain
    .
    The development of the chemical fertilizer industry and the application of chemical fertilizers have played a huge and irreplaceable role in promoting the development of food and agricultural production

    .
    However, there are also problems of irrational application of fertilizers, such as excessive fertilizer and nutrient imbalance, which have caused many adverse effects such as low fertilizer nutrient utilization, low fertilizer efficiency, soil fertility degradation, especially serious acidification, and environmental pollution

    .
    In order to promote sustainable agricultural efficiency, protect the ecological environment, and promote green production, strong measures must be taken to reduce irrational use of chemical fertilizers and achieve zero growth of chemical fertilizers by 2020

    .
    1.
    Why is there more fertilizer?
    Hubei is one of the 13 main grain producing areas in the country.
    In 2015, the grain output reached 54.
    07 billion jin, a record high, but at the same time, our province is also a province that consumes large amounts of fertilizer

    .
    Statistics show that in 2013, the province used more than 13 million tons of chemical fertilizers, equivalent to 3.
    519 million tons (the same below), including 1.
    528 million tons of nitrogen fertilizers, 646,000 tons of phosphate fertilizers, 313,000 tons of potash fertilizers, and 1.
    032 million tons of compound fertilizers

    .
    In the past 30 years, the amount of fertilizer used in Hubei Province has continued to increase, mainly due to the following aspects: 1.
    Large sown area and high multiple crop index

    .
    The province's arable land area is nearly 60 million mu, the multiple cropping index is as high as 2 or more, and the total sown area exceeds 100 million mu

    .
    According to statistics in 2013, the province’s average annual chemical fertilizer application per mu of arable land was 59.
    1 kg.
    Based on the sown area, the single-season chemical fertilizer application was 26.
    8 kg/mu, which is 4.
    9 kg higher than the national average of 21.
    9 kg per mu.
    It is safer than the internationally recognized 15 kg/mu safe on-line

    .
    2.
    The planting industry structure is adjusted, and the area of ​​cash crops is expanding year by year

    .
    The effective supply of food is an important guarantee for social stability, and the general problem facing agriculture is the low income of the planting industry, especially the cultivation of food crops

    .
    Stimulated by price leverage, the structure of the planting industry has gradually changed: cash crops such as fruit, tea, vegetables, etc.
    have expanded year by year, leading to higher and higher inputs of chemical fertilizers.

    .
    The survey showed that farmers invested more than 1,500 yuan in chemical fertilizer per mu for vegetable cultivation, which is equivalent to applying nearly 1 ton of chemical fertilizer (physical quantity); in some vineyards, the amount of fertilizer applied per acre even reached more than 2 tons

    .
    3.
    Poor quality of cultivated land and low fertilizer utilization rate

    .
    Unreasonable application of chemical fertilizers, resulting in low fertilizer utilization, is the main problem facing the current application of chemical fertilizers

    .
    Studies have shown that the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer in the current season is 30% to 40%, phosphate fertilizer is only about 20%, and potassium fertilizer is 40% to 60%.
    The main reasons for the low fertilizer utilization rate are: First, the soil organic matter content has decreased significantly

    .
    The average content dropped from 2.
    4% in 1980 to 1.
    9% in 2007, and 70% of the cultivated land was seriously deficient in soil organic matter

    .
    Despite the implementation of soil organic matter improvement actions in recent years, the organic matter content has rebounded to 2.
    3%, but it still only reaches half of the 4% to 5% of the cultivated soil organic matter content in the United States, the European Union, Japan and other countries

    .
    Second, the imbalance of soil nutrient ratio has increased

    .
    The area of ​​potassium-deficient soil in the province has expanded and deepened.
    The proportion of potassium-deficient areas has increased from 19% in 1981 to 65% in 2007; the average soil available potassium content has dropped from 136 mg/kg to 103 mg/kg, a decline in the past 30 years As much as 25%; the soil lacks trace elements such as boron and zinc in an area of ​​more than 40 million mu, and the degree of lack is becoming more and more serious

    .
    Although the available phosphorus content in the soil has increased to a certain extent, the regional distribution is unbalanced due to unreasonable fertilization, the main grain and oil producing areas are lacking, and the suburban vegetable fields are obviously excessive

    .
    The third is the obvious trend of soil acidification

    .
    According to statistics, the area of ​​strong acid soil with a pH value of less than 5.
    0 in the province is 4,465,100 mu, accounting for 8.
    32% of the province's total, and the area of ​​acid soil with pH 5.
    0 to 5.
    5 is 7,299,200 acres, accounting for 13.
    61% of the province's total.
    The total area reached 11,764,300 mu, accounting for 21.
    93% of the province's total.
    Fourth, farmers improper fertilization methods

    .
    The main manifestations are: spreading, surface application, "one-shot bombardment" and other phenomena are widespread, and the penetration rate of mechanical deep application and precise fertilization technology is not high

    .
    Fifth, organic fertilizer resources are not fully utilized

    .
    In recent years, the process of urbanization in our province has been accelerating, coupled with the relatively low efficiency of agriculture, the transfer of labor to cities, and the further scarcity of agricultural labor.
    Traditional farm manure has gradually withdrawn from the stage of history: green manure planting area has disappeared, straw burning is widespread, and livestock The wanton discharge of poultry manure has caused the loss of organic fertilizer resources and increased agricultural non-point source pollution

    .
    2.
    Will fertilizers continue to be applied?
    Chemical fertilizers are nutrients for crops, not poisons.
    Studies have shown that fertilizers contribute more than 40% to grain production.
    Without fertilization, grain yields will be reduced or even no crops will be harvested

    .
    Every stage of crop growth and development requires nutrients, but the nutrients in the soil are limited, and the nutrients taken away by the crops must be supplemented by fertilization

    .
    There are many types of fertilizers, and unreasonable chemical fertilizers are reduced, and organic fertilizers and other fertilizers must be used to supplement and replace them

    .
    On the one hand, fertilization must be used to ensure high and stable crop yields.
    On the other hand, too much and too much can not be applied, which will cause waste and cause environmental pollution

    .
    Long-term abuse of chemical fertilizers will eventually reduce the physical and chemical properties of the soil, resulting in soil compaction, acidification, and decline in soil fertility, causing the soil to grow nothing and nothing to grow

    .
    Advocating the reduction of chemical fertilizers is to reduce the part that is unreasonably used and the part that is wasteful

    .
    3.
    What is the focus of scientific fertilization?
    It is necessary to firmly establish the concepts of increasing yield, economical fertilization and environmentally friendly fertilization, deepen scientific fertilization, accelerate the transformation of fertilization methods, comprehensively protect and improve the quality of cultivated land, reduce unreasonable chemical fertilizer input, implement organic fertilizer resource utilization, and achieve high yield, high efficiency and high quality The road to environmentally sustainable development

    .
    It is necessary to make a fuss about the technical route centered on the four-character policy of "refinement, adjustment, modification, and replacement", with the focus on "four pushes and one mention"

    .
    "Fine": precise fertilization, in-depth promotion of soil testing and formula fertilization

    .
    On the basis of summing up experience, innovate service methods, expand service content, and promote soil testing and formula fertilization on a larger scale and at a higher level

    .
    One is to expand the scope of implementation

    .
    While continuing to do a good job in soil testing and formula fertilization for food crops, expand the application of facility agriculture and economic horticultural crops such as vegetables, fruit trees, tea, etc.
    , and basically achieve full coverage of soil testing and formula fertilization for major crops

    .
    The second is to promote the docking of agricultural enterprises

    .
    Strengthen agricultural-enterprise cooperation, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of fertilizer companies to participate in soil testing and formula fertilization, and promote formula fertilizers using four models, such as "grasping medicines according to prescriptions", "Chinese patent medicines", "decocting Chinese herbal medicines" and "private doctors"

    .
    The third is to innovate service mechanisms

    .
    Actively explore the combination of public welfare services and operational services, and the effective mode of government purchasing services, support the development of professional and social soil testing formula service organizations, and provide farmers with the "four unifications" of unified survey, unified allocation, unified supply, and unified implementation Service

    .
    Use modern information technology to facilitate the promotion of soil testing and formula fertilization technology

    .
    "Adjustment": Adjust the structure of chemical fertilizers and vigorously promote the application of new fertilizers and new technologies

    .
    One is to strengthen technology research and development

    .
    Coordinating scientific research, teaching, promotion, and corporate strength, relying on a research and development platform that combines production, education, research and promotion, focusing on research on crop high-yield and efficient fertilization technology, quick and slow effects, large and medium-trace elements, organic and inorganic, compound functional microorganisms, scientific and reasonable formula Research and development of new fertilizer products

    .
    The second is to accelerate the promotion of new products

    .
    Demonstrate and promote new fertilizers such as formulated fertilizers, commercial organic fertilizers, organic and inorganic compound fertilizers, slow and controlled release fertilizers, water-soluble fertilizers, foliar spray fertilizers, functional microbial fertilizers, compound microbial fertilizers, and soil conditioners, and accelerate the elimination of low-content elemental fertilizers Varieties, and continuously improve fertilizer utilization

    .
    The third is to integrate and promote efficient fertilization technology models

    .
    Combining the creation of high-yield and tackling key problems in green prevention and control models, and in accordance with the soil nutrient status and the law of crop fertilizer requirements, the integrated promotion of high-yield and high-efficiency fertilization technology model by region and by crop

    .
    "Reform": Improve fertilization methods, demonstrate and promote the application of new technologies in fertilizer application

    .
    Give full play to the demonstration and leading role of new business entities such as large grain farmers, family farms, and professional cooperatives, strengthen technical training and guidance services, vigorously promote advanced and applicable technologies, and promote the transformation of fertilization methods

    .
    One is to promote mechanical fertilization

    .
    In accordance with the principles of integration of agronomics and agricultural machinery and coordination of base fertilizer and top dressing, technologies such as mechanical deep application of chemical fertilizers, mechanical top dressing, and simultaneous seeding of fertilizers should be promoted according to local conditions to reduce nutrient volatilization and loss

    .
    The second is to promote the integration of water and fertilizer

    .
    Combining high-efficiency water-saving irrigation, demonstration and popularization of drip irrigation fertilization, spray irrigation fertilization and other technologies, promote the integration of water and fertilizer to the land, and improve the efficiency of fertilizer utilization

    .
    The third is to promote proper fertilization technology

    .
    Reasonably determine the proportion of accumulated fertilizer fertilization, popularize the technology of phased fertilization according to the location, seedlings, water, and time, and popularize the technology of foliar spraying on wheat and rice and fertilizing outside the roots of fruit trees according to local conditions

    .
    The fourth is to promote the deep application of chemical fertilizers

    .
    Combined with plowing and field preparation, the base fertilizer will be pressed and deep plowed to reduce the loss of fertilizer, especially nitrogen, from volatilization

    .
    "Replacement": Replace some chemical fertilizers and fully promote the rational use of organic fertilizer resources

    .
    Actively explore effective models for the utilization of organic nutrient resources, increase support, and guide farmers to rationally use organic fertilizers

    .
    One is to promote the utilization of organic fertilizer resources

    .
    Support large-scale breeding enterprises to use livestock and poultry manure to produce organic fertilizer, encourage and guide farmers to accumulate farm manure, promote the application of commercial organic fertilizer, and support farmers to increase organic fertilizer

    .
    The second is to promote the return of straw nutrients to the fields

    .
    It is forbidden to burn straw, vigorously promote straw crushing, return to the field, rapid decomposed return, return to the field through the belly, and return to the field under dry farming, research and develop the application of straw smashing, decomposing agent application, soil plowing, and land leveling integrated operation machinery, The straw is taken from the field and used in the field

    .
    The third is to plant green manure according to local conditions

    .
    Make full use of the winter fallow fields, implement the rotation of cultivated crops and land-use crops, and promote the planting of winter green manure, autumn green manure and economic green manure

    .
    In areas where conditions permit, farmers should be guided to apply microbial fertilizers for nitrogen-fixing crops such as rhizobia to promote nitrogen-fixing fertilizer fields for crops such as peanuts, soybeans and milk vetch

    .
    At the same time, pay close attention to the implementation of the "Regulations on the Protection of Cultivated Land Quality" to improve the quality of cultivated land

    .
    The "Regulations on the Protection of Cultivated Land Quality in Hubei Province" have been implemented for 2 years.
    It is necessary to carry out the protection and improvement of cultivated land quality in combination with high-standard farmland construction, focusing on the improvement of cultivated land with measures such as soil fertility improvement, soil improvement, nutrient balance, and quality restoration.
    Intrinsic quality

    .
    Reasonably apply lime and soil conditioners to improve acidified soil and supplement soil effective calcium, control pollution sources and the discharge of heavy metals and other pollutants, irrigate up to standard farmland water, apply up to standard fertilizers, and repair heavy metal pollution through biological absorption and enrichment and activated carbon adsorption

    .
    Through continuous improvement of the basic production capacity of arable land, it is ensured that while reducing the input of chemical fertilizers, the quality of agricultural products is improved, and the stable and sustainable development of agriculture and food production are maintained

    .
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