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    Home > Biochemistry News > Biotechnology News > Advances in intervention research on the effects of different diets, body weight and exercise on energy expenditure, clinical and metabolomic marker changes

    Advances in intervention research on the effects of different diets, body weight and exercise on energy expenditure, clinical and metabolomic marker changes

    • Last Update: 2022-01-24
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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      On January 10, 2022, the Journal of Nutrition , a well-known international journal in the field of nutrition, published the article "Different isocaloric meals and adiposity modify energy expenditure, clinical and metabolomic biomarkers during resting and exercise states in a randomized cross-over acute trial of normal weight and overweight/obese men”
    This short-term intervention is the first to systematically investigate the effects of different dietary macronutrient ratios, body mass index (BMI), exercise, and resting state on energy metabolism and clinical cardiovascular metabolism-related indicators and metabolome profiles under isoenergetic conditions


      With the rapid transformation of dietary nutrition and life>
    The discovery of effective dietary intervention strategies is of great significance for the prevention and control of such diseases

    The total and proportion of macronutrient intake including carbohydrates, fat and protein, individual body weight, and resting/exercise energy expenditure and substrate metabolism all play an important role in regulating energy balance and cardiometabolic health role

    The application of metabolomics in intervention studies can more deeply and objectively reveal the metabolic status and metabolic pathways of different nutrients in the body

    However, the relationship between total dietary energy, macronutrient composition and metabolic health remains controversial, and overweight and obesity can also affect basal energy metabolism and substrate consumption rates to varying degrees

    To date, intervention studies that systematically assess the effects of different dietary macronutrient ratios, body weight, and exercise on energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and metabolomics are particularly lacking


      In this 3 × 2 × 2 randomized controlled, crossover design short-term dietary intervention study, Lin Xu's research team recruited 20 normal weight and 20 overweight/obese male volunteers aged 18-45 years old, and randomly ordered Give 3 isocaloric experimental meals with different macronutrient ratios (high-carb+low-fat, low-carb+high-fat, high-protein+low-fat), and eat each meal for two consecutive days: on the first day (resting day) Resting energy expenditure was collected at multiple time points on an empty stomach, 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours after meals by indirect calorimetry, and at rest before meals and after meals on the second day (exercise day).
    Energy expenditure for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity cycling

    Fasting and 2-h postprandial blood samples were collected on both rest days and exercise days

    The washout period between meals was 10 days

    By systematically analyzing the data before and after the three dietary interventions, we found that: 1) Although the three diets did not find significant differences in total postprandial energy consumption, dietary thermic effect and subjective satiety; moderate-intensity exercise can significantly increase high-carbohydrate meals.
    2) The increase of blood glucose and insulin 2 hours after the high-carbohydrate meal was significantly higher than that of the other two kinds of meals; the increase of triglyceride 2 hours after the high-fat meal The largest amount; the smallest increase in blood glucose and total cholesterol 2 hours after the high-protein meal

    Exercise significantly attenuated the glycemic and insulin-raising effects of a high-carbohydrate diet (Figure 1)

    3) Through non-targeted metabolomic assays carried out in cooperation with the team of researcher Huiyong Yin, 69 effector metabolome markers were found that could significantly distinguish the 2-hour postprandial responses of the three types of meals, mainly enriched in arginine synthesis, cysteine Amino acid and methionine metabolism, as well as glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathways, among which the amino acids with the highest effect value are homocysteine, histidine, tryptophan, etc.
    (Figure 2)

    4) Overweight/obese volunteers exhibited lower carbohydrate oxidation rates and higher fat oxidation rates than normal weight individuals; larger postprandial insulin and triglyceride increments, and more postprandial metabolite changes Quantity and higher magnitudes of changes suggest that overweight and obese individuals have a weaker ability to regain metabolic homeostasis after meals than normal-weight individuals

    In conclusion, compared with macronutrients, total dietary energy may have a more significant effect on postprandial energy expenditure, while isocaloric diets with different macronutrient ratios have different effects on postprandial cardiometabolic indicators, and are affected by body weight and exercise.

    This study provides a scientific basis for the formulation of precise weight loss intervention programs in the future


      Researcher Lin Xu and Associate Researcher Sun Liang of Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences are the co-corresponding authors of the article, and Ph.
    students Xiong Quan and Associate Researcher Sun Liang are the co-first authors

    This subject has been funded by the key projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the By-Health Nutrition Research Fund Project


      Original link: https://academic.

    Figure 1 Comparison of changes in blood clinical parameters 2 hours after meals

    Figure 2 PLS-DA and pathway analysis of changes in blood metabolome indexes 2 hours after meals


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