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    Home > Active Ingredient News > Study of Nervous System > Brain: Physical examination revealed cavum infarction, brain atrophy, white matter lesions...Be careful of the most common cause of vascular dementia!

    Brain: Physical examination revealed cavum infarction, brain atrophy, white matter lesions...Be careful of the most common cause of vascular dementia!

    • Last Update: 2021-05-21
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    Cerebral small blood vessel disease (CSVD) is a common disease that primarily affects the brain microvessels.
    At first, due to poor understanding, CSVD was generally believed to be harmless.
    With the deepening of research,
    it has been confirmed that CSVD is the most important cause of vascular dementia worldwide, and its typical feature is white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) .
    The radiological and pathological features of CSVD also include the state of cerebral cavities, subcortical infarction, microhemorrhage, enlargement of the perivascular space, and brain atrophy.

    Vessels has been demonstrated CSVD is the leading cause in the world vascular dementia, which typically characterized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal high white matter has been demonstrated CSVD is the leading cause in the world vascular dementia, which typically Characterized by white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Data show that as many as 50% of patients with CSVD and 92% of patients with vascular dementia have apathy-this is a debilitating neuropsychiatric syndrome.
    In patients with CSVD, apathy and the risk of dementia are significantly increased And mortality related.
    There is currently no targeted treatment for apathy, partly because of a lack of understanding of its underlying mechanisms.

    Data show that as many as 50% of patients with CSVD and 92% of patients with vascular dementia have apathy-this is a debilitating neuropsychiatric syndrome.
    In patients with CSVD, apathy and the risk of dementia are significantly increased And mortality related.
    Data show that as many as 50% of patients with CSVD and 92% of patients with vascular dementia have apathy-this is a debilitating neuropsychiatric syndrome.
    In patients with CSVD, apathy and the risk of dementia are significantly increased And mortality related.

    In general, indifference refers to the reduction of "active voluntary behavior"—an obstacle to linking motivation to the initiation of an action.
    A new way to quantify the active behavior of patients is to examine and evaluate the performance of the paradigm of effort-based reward decisions.
    These tasks are extended from the study of animal models and play an important role in the phenotype of human indifference by exploring different stages of decision-making.
    An important part of deciding whether to take action includes weighing its perceived benefits (such as potential rewards) and subjective costs (such as the effort required to obtain rewards).
    By parametrically manipulating rewards and effort in experimental tasks, it is possible to describe the behavioral changes behind indifference.

    For this reason, some scholars have put forward the hypothesis that indifference is related to the interruption of decision-making in effort-based decision-making, and that these changes are related to abnormalities in the white matter network connecting the brain regions that support these decisions.
    In order to verify this hypothesis, experts from the Department of Clinical Neurosciences of Oxford University in the United Kingdom carried out relevant studies, and the results were published in the latest "Brain" magazine.

    That is, indifference is related to the interruption of decision-making in effort-based decision-making, and these changes are related to abnormalities in the white matter network that connects the brain regions that support these decisions.
    That is, indifference is related to the interruption of decision-making in effort-based decision-making, and these changes are related to abnormalities in the white matter network that connects the brain regions that support these decisions.

    The researchers recruited 82 patients with evidence of CSVD magnetic resonance imaging using behavioral paradigms and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for evaluation.
    Decision-making tasks include accepting or rejecting monetary rewards in exchange for varying degrees of manual labor.
    The selection data and reaction time are integrated into a drift diffusion model, which takes the decision to accept or reject the offer as a random process, approaching the decision boundary with a specific drift rate.
    At the same time, the relationship between white matter tract integrity and indifference was evaluated to explain depression.

    Effort-based decisions-tasks and overall performance as a function of indifference.

    Effort-based decisions-tasks and overall performance as a function of indifference.

    In general, the indifferent patients accept far fewer proposals in this decision-making task.
    It is worth noting that although indifferent patients respond weakly to low returns, they are also clearly opposed to investing a lot of energy.

    In general, the indifferent patients accept far fewer proposals in this decision-making task.
    In general, the indifferent patients accept far fewer proposals in this decision-making task.

    At the same time, the researchers also observed that a significant decrease in white matter integrity is particularly related to apathy, but not to depression.
    These include pathways connecting brain regions that were previously associated with effort-based decision-making in healthy people
    .
    The drift rate of decision-making parameters is significantly related to the changes in apathy and white matter tracts, indicating that the brain and behavior changes in apathy are related to this single parameter.
    On the other hand, depression is associated with an increase in decision-making boundaries, which is consistent with an increase in the amount of evidence required before decision-making.

    Researchers have also observed that a significant decrease in white matter integrity is particularly associated with apathy, but not depression.
    These include pathways connecting brain regions that were previously associated with effort-based decision-making in healthy people.
    Researchers have also observed that significant reductions in white matter integrity are particularly associated with apathy, but not depression.
    These include pathways connecting brain regions that were previously related to the effort-based decision-making of healthy people

    Use white matter lesion burden to quantify disease severity

    Use white matter lesion burden to quantify disease severity

    These findings demonstrate the changes in effort-based reward decisions in patients with apathy, and also emphasize that the mechanisms behind apathy and depression can be distinguished in CSVD.
    They provide clear potential brain and behavior goals for future therapeutic interventions, as well as modeling parameters that can be used to measure the effect of treatment at the behavioral level.

    These findings demonstrate the changes in effort-based reward decisions in patients with apathy, and also emphasize that the mechanisms behind apathy and depression can be distinguished in CSVD.
    These findings demonstrate the changes in effort-based reward decisions in patients with apathy, and also emphasize that the mechanisms behind apathy and depression can be distinguished in CSVD.

     

    references:

    silverchair.
    com/awab013.
    pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAqIwggKeBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggKPMIICiwIBADCCAoQGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMsbc1VKMywEreS5ShAgEQgIICVbjyn2JHdNubKzLq8VS1CkOEPebRZAJUT6TKgwe_p2_8P5Wqw8yBIIYmI0fH_h5VWgoarSVcppt-qjPAtqUym6POLA1uSEQf11Qdw4v_SzinJ12UADI8wF815NbZHgHeSmBtoe0PZNI0jSMuufL14flzn1wKKFg3IzXSHACmUDpkeR7HoSJrufs0Xg0HhrVVjDJ_mF-hcHe-23oKAvqDe9YKaY5sljv1yLHlQ0qeDWVh6WAt2JmW9KVOY7DJOunvLjdRtUA4_wJTIKJF5vUY8PE-5sIkHMmrYlFUVI_txwrXGXRVkcOPcrmnt-5KeZmLvQJzLTdJXlFG9RZPG7KP4v49UVABCe-u9nH-hWCU8nPpmeXMBvFPW6-PTVjhN4-7cjDQFwf4POC3SCHtaUWnCguCRBqa2Wa2C3bZQKyAUWLIJ1EjPnBzvRr0-uZ8pVB1PKt5TBKWCbB_HEuufk4cvw3sATvAy7Ogo17fuiEq16MDIDRbvHqsIsjscawhyYuLiWLmyD39poufooppBi2K-sUxcVvDhC3uqIRO_IR5FHKJ3PAHrCrFnmjTGnT25CAKyLKqOL8L1yEyUQJApwgGQEcEBwyMZWPgykuyk8rjOfTyRznmQCIp4jjqhb6V3EdJrt1cRSQgjE3wnGk36Js-7rus6XBF2E9dRTruf3jqZCpdalU0EL9KssLtQLGaCn6QhUGCUnXURRtzgjspIupdVlgWGxEcCkDtIgNqKLyz8nWAbyDKHzT8U7STh4Edg6zBXmhgeyiDCJ8hxa0UhO7-lVZThra_Vg" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Apathy in small vessel cerebrovascular disease is associated with deficits in effort-based decision making.
    BRAIN 2021: 144; 1247–1262.
    doi:10.
    1093/brain/awab013

    silverchair.
    com/awab013.
    pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAqIwggKeBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggKPMIICiwIBADCCAoQGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMsbc1VKMywEreS5ShAgEQgIICVbjyn2JHdNubKzLq8VS1CkOEPebRZAJUT6TKgwe_p2_8P5Wqw8yBIIYmI0fH_h5VWgoarSVcppt-qjPAtqUym6POLA1uSEQf11Qdw4v_SzinJ12UADI8wF815NbZHgHeSmBtoe0PZNI0jSMuufL14flzn1wKKFg3IzXSHACmUDpkeR7HoSJrufs0Xg0HhrVVjDJ_mF-hcHe-23oKAvqDe9YKaY5sljv1yLHlQ0qeDWVh6WAt2JmW9KVOY7DJOunvLjdRtUA4_wJTIKJF5vUY8PE-5sIkHMmrYlFUVI_txwrXGXRVkcOPcrmnt-5KeZmLvQJzLTdJXlFG9RZPG7KP4v49UVABCe-u9nH-hWCU8nPpmeXMBvFPW6-PTVjhN4-7cjDQFwf4POC3SCHtaUWnCguCRBqa2Wa2C3bZQKyAUWLIJ1EjPnBzvRr0-uZ8pVB1PKt5TBKWCbB_HEuufk4cvw3sATvAy7Ogo17fuiEq16MDIDRbvHqsIsjscawhyYuLiWLmyD39poufooppBi2K-sUxcVvDhC3uqIRO_IR5FHKJ3PAHrCrFnmjTGnT25CAKyLKqOL8L1yEyUQJApwgGQEcEBwyMZWPgykuyk8rjOfTyRznmQCIp4jjqhb6V3EdJrt1cRSQgjE3wnGk36Js-7rus6XBF2E9dRTruf3jqZCpdalU0EL9KssLtQLGaCn6QhUGCUnXURRtzgjspIupdVlgWGxEcCkDtIgNqKLyz8nWAbyDKHzT8U7STh4Edg6zBXmhgeyiDCJ8hxa0UhO7-lVZThra_Vg" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Apathy in small vessel cerebrovascular disease is associated with deficits in effort-based decision making.


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