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    Home > Food News > Nutrition News > Cell sub-journal: Not all dietary fiber is created equal

    Cell sub-journal: Not all dietary fiber is created equal

    • Last Update: 2022-05-20
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    The health benefits of dietary fiber vary from person to person and may depend on the specific type of fiber and the amount consumed, according to a new study
    .

    The health benefits of dietary fiber vary from person to person and may depend on the precise type and amount of fiber consumed, researchers reveal in the April 28, 2022, issue of Cell Host and Microbes
    .

    "Our findings suggest that the physiological, microbial and molecular effects of individual fibers vary widely," said senior study author Michael Snyder, a geneticist at Stanford School of Medicine
    .
    "Furthermore, our results show the tantalizing prospect of harnessing the microbiota-mediated targeting of fibers to push health and systems biology in predictable, personalized directions

    .
    "

    A high-fiber diet may reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease
    .
    They work by lowering cholesterol and promoting a healthier lipid structure in people on a Westernized diet

    .
    Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is selectively metabolized by gut microbes but cannot be digested by humans

    .
    Understanding how they affect the microbiome, and thus human biochemistry and physiology, is critical for the effective use of dietary fiber supplements to improve human health

    .

    Chemically, fibers vary in length, branching, charge, solubility, and other properties
    .
    "They are often studied as complex mixtures of plant sources," Snyder said.
    "It is

    necessary to determine the net effect of individual fibers on the microbiome and to establish relevant biomarkers of health, ideally by studying the same individual to test different fibers
    .

    To address this question, Snyder and his colleagues set out to study how the purified individual fiber components affected the same group of participants
    .
    Specifically, they investigated the physiological effects of dietary addition of two common soluble fibers with different structures: arabinoxylan (AX), commonly found in whole grains, and long-chain inulin (LCI), found in onion, chicory root and Found in Jerusalem artichokes

    .

    The researchers used fecal metagenomics, plasma proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and analyzed serum cytokines and clinical values ​​in 18 participants
    .
    "Fiber has been linked to improved metabolic and cardiovascular health, but understanding the impact of individual fibers on microbial and metabolomic responses has not been studied using multi-omics datasets," Snyder said

    .

    Participants consumed 10 grams of fiber per day for the first week, 20 grams per day for the second week, and 30 grams per day for the third week
    .
    Results showed fiber and dose-dependent microbial and systemic responses

    .
    On average, AX intake was associated with a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), known as "bad cholesterol," and an increase in bile acids, which may help lower cholesterol

    .
    However, everyone's responses varied, with some participants showing little change in cholesterol levels

    .

    "Several high-fiber foods have cholesterol-lowering effects, and our study suggests that these reductions may be driven by individual components of mixed fiber in unrefined plant foods," Snyder said
    .

    Meanwhile, LCI was associated with modest reductions in inflammatory markers and an increase in the abundance of Bifidobacterium, a generally beneficial gut microbe known to produce healthy short-chain fatty acids
    .
    But at the highest doses, inflammation and levels of a liver enzyme called alanine aminotransferase increased, suggesting that too much of this fiber could be harmful

    .
    Again, these potential negative responses were variable among participants

    .
     

    Two limitations of the study were its short duration and small number of participants
    .
    But according to the authors, this study provides the mechanism behind fiber-induced cholesterol lowering, uncovers the deleterious effects of high intake of inulin, and highlights the link between individual, purified fibers and the microbiome

    .

    "Overall, our findings suggest that the benefits of fiber depend on fiber type, dose, and the factor landscape of interactions between fiber, gut microbiota, and the host involved," Snyder said
    .
    "These results have important implications for personalizing responses and interventions

    .
    "





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