Control and application of fermentation technology in food production
Last Update: 2020-06-20
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People know thousands of years ago to use fermentation technology to produce food, today, fermentation technology in food production more extensive applications, the production of food varieties more rich and diverseIf you want to produce fermented food that meets the requirements of product standards, you should master the fermentation technology of the foodfermentation technology in food production control should first do a good job of fermentation food raw materials procurement quality control, and then according to the product varieties, process reasonable layout of enterprise plant and facilities and equipment, strengthen the impact of the fermentation process of all factors of quality control, is the key to control fermentation technology1, fermentation technology developmentChina as early as thousands of years ago, people began to use fermentation technology to engage in winemaking, sauce, vinegar and other food production, and accumulated a wealth of fermentation experienceFermented foods originated from home and workshop-style handcrafting, mostly produced by virtue of the skills and experience passed down by their ancestorsLater, with the development of industry, people used machinery or pipes instead of heavy manual labor, the fermentation production process was standardized, the scale of industrialization production2, the definition of fermentation technologyfermentation technology refers to people using the fermentation role of microorganisms, the use of some technical means to control the fermentation process, large-scale production of fermentation products, called fermentation technologyThe concept of fermentation comes from the process of brewing"Fermentation" originally came from Latin to "foaming"3, the application of fermentation technology in food productionthrough fermentation technology can not only improve the flavor, color and organizational structure of food, but also improve the nutritional value of foodTherefore, fermentation technology is widely used in food productionThe beer, soy sauce, rotting milk, bread, yogurt and kimchi we produce on a daily basis are all traditional fermented foods produced using fermentation technology4, fermentation technology in food production controlin order to produce fermented food in line with product standards, should master the fermentation technology of food Although there are many kinds of fermented food, different fermented food has different requirements for fermentation technology, but because of some similarities in the process, fermentation technology of fermented food also has some commonalities Since 1980, China has promulgated a variety of fermented food production license review rules, these can be used as a reference for the production technology control of fermented food, fermentation technology in food production control mainly has the following points 1) The quality of the procurement of fermentation raw materials should be strictly controlled the selection of raw materials that meet the requirements is very important for fermented food Food fermentation using raw materials are often sugar or starch and other carbohydrates, fermentation with the vast majority of microbial species from the existing excellent bacteria, or self-selected new strains The raw materials used in fermented food must comply with Article 50 of the Food Safety Law: "Food producers purchasing food raw materials, food additives, food-related production crystals shall check the supplier's license and product certification; " such as soy sauce and beer and other fermented food will be used as beans, grains and other fermentation raw materials, these raw materials common hazards include heavy metals, pesticide residues and radioactive pollution, so the purchase of these raw materials should strengthen the determination of drug residues and heavy metals 2) plant process layout should be reasonable, fermentation facilities to be complete and in line with the requirements reasonable plant layout and necessary fermentation equipment is a prerequisite for the production of fermented food An enterprise must have a suitable production place in accordance with the regulations, and there should be no harmful gases, soot and other diffusion pollution sources around the plant The layout of the production process should be reasonable, and each process should reduce the round trip and avoid cross-contamination The enterprise must have the necessary production equipment corresponding to the food variety and quantity produced and have the necessary production equipment specified in the examination rules, and the performance and precision of the equipment shall meet the requirements of food production and processing For example, the production of vinegar, production plant can meet raw material handling, seeding (except for the association) and composition, liquefaction and glycation, alcohol fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, gonorrhea vinegar, mixing, sterilization treatment and filling (packaging) equipment equipment, pipes, coatings, appliances and containers that come into contact with the production of fermented food must be made of non-toxic, odor-free, corrosion-resistant, easy-to-clean and non-chemical lying materials that do not have any chemical reactions to food, and the surface shall be smooth 3) Strengthen the quality management and control of fermentation process strengthen the quality management and control of fermentation process is the key to the whole fermentation technology In the fermentation process, there are many factors affecting fermentation, such as temperature, pH, ventilation (oxygen supply), feed and so on In order to develop the fermented food in a favorable direction, it is necessary to properly control the conditions affecting fermentation, grasp the fermentation dynamics in a timely manner, and strengthen the quality management and control of fermentation process If not controlled or improperly controlled, not only can not be made into the ideal fermented food, but also cause microbial contamination, so that food corruption deterioration , in order to ensure the quality of fermentation products, fermentation rooms, pools and bacteria culture room equipment, tools, lines, walls, floor should be kept clean to avoid the growth of mold or other bacteria Culture containers, utensils and media must be strictly sterilized before use The species should be regularly screened, purified and, if necessary, identified to prevent the contamination of the bacteria, the degradation of the species and the production of mutated poisons the control of the fermentation process of mainly includes the following aspects control a, fermentation temperature the temperature required for fermentation varies according to the type of microorganism, various microorganisms have their own most suitable growth temperature, different microbe growth temperature requirements are different, according to their temperature requirements, can be broadly divided into 4 categories: cold-eating bacteria adapted to the growth of 0 to 26 degrees C, warm-eating bacteria adapted to 15 to 45 degrees C production, heat-fever bacteria adapted to 37 to 65 degrees C growth, high temperature bacteria adapted to 65 degrees C growth In the fermentation of mixed bacteria, the growth rate of different types of microorganisms can be controlled by regulating the fermentation temperature, so as to achieve the ideal fermentation effect It should be noted that the effect of temperature on the production of bacteria and product synthesis may be different In other words, the most suitable temperature for production of the bacteria is not necessarily the most suitable temperature for the desired metabolites because microorganisms have different temperature requirements during production and fermentation In production, in order to obtain high productivity, in order to obtain high productivity, in view of the characteristics of the bacteria used, at all stages of the fermentation cycle need to control the temperature, providing the most suitable temperature for this stage of biological activity In the pre-fermentation period, less bacteria, take a slightly higher temperature, promote the respiratory and metabolism of bacteria, so that bacteria grow rapidly, in the medium-term bacteria has reached the most moderate amount of synthetic products, fermentation needs to be extended in the medium term, so as to improve the yield, so that the medium-term temperature is slightly lower, can delay aging; the fermentation of yeast when soy sauce is produced is appropriate at 30 degrees C, below 10 degrees C can only reproduce, fermentation is more difficult The production of yeasts above 40 degrees C is inhibited and cannot even survive and ferment Using medium-temperature or low-temperature fermentation methods, adapt to extend the fermentation cycle, can increase the aroma of soy sauce However, some bacterial products form higher than the production temperature, such as glutamate production of bacteria production temperature of 30-32 degrees C, acid production temperature of 34-37 degrees C In addition, temperature control should also be based on the training conditions to comprehensive consideration, flexible choice When the ventilation condition is poor, can be appropriate to reduce the temperature, reduce the respiratory rate of bacteria, can appropriately increase the concentration of dissolved oxygen, when the medium is thin, reduce the temperature, because the temperature of high nutrition use fast, will make the bacteria premature self-dissolve in general, the temperature selection should be based on the product use of bacteria in the production stages and culture conditions of comprehensive consideration, and through repeated practice to determine the most suitable temperature b and acidity control different microorganisms each have their own suitable pH range, such as yeast 3.8-6.0, bacteria 6.5-7.5, mold 4.0-5.8, line bacteria 6.5-8.0 Acids have the effect of inhibiting microbial growth, that is, acid-containing foods have a certain anti-corrosion capacity, for most microorganisms, when pH and lt;2, it is inhibited can not grow but sometimes some acid-resistant microorganisms can also make pH rise, such as mold in aerobic presence, the surface of the food will have mold growth, because mold acid resistance, oxygen demand, acid consumption Yeast, acid resistance can break down proteins, resulting in ammonia, and the consumption of acids As a result of food loss of anti-corrosion capacity, resulting in the surface of the food will occur fat decomposition and other degradation activities, so that food corruption deterioration the change of acidity in the fermentation process is the embodiment of the fermentation process, is the result of biological growth and metabolism, but also the basis and direction of the fermentation process control, control of fermentation acidity is very important to the production of qualified products There are four ways to control pH: (1) adjust the pH of the base material, adjust it through the base medium, add the substance to maintain the pH in the base material, (2) adjust the pH according to the need saccharine consumption during fermentation, and (3) When the supplement and the adjustment pH conflict, the acid-base regulator adjusts the pH value, (4) according to different fermentation stages to take different pH, regular observation of the production of the bacteria, with the growth of the bacteria to reach the highest pH value of the production of the applicable pH c, ventilation (oxygen supply) microbes can be divided into aerobic microorganisms and anaerobic microorganisms Mold is oxygen-demand, in the absence of oxygen conditions can not grow, so the production of rotting milk, soy sauce should have sufficient oxygen to ensure that fermentation is normal Anaerobic microorganisms, such as Botox, are specialized anaerobic bacteria, and both anaerobic microorganisms such as yeast Acetic acid bacteria is aerobic bacteria, when making vinegar, first let yeast in the oxygen-deficient conditions of sugar into alcohol, and then in the ventilation conditions by acetic acid bacteria will be alcohol oxidation to produce acetic acid, but the amount of ventilation is too large, acetic acid will be further oxidized, at this time if there is mold can grow and consume acetic acid Therefore, ventilation should be appropriate to reduce the possibility of mold growth Proper lying or cutting off the supply of oxygen can promote or inhibit the growth of (fermentation) bacteria and guide production in the desired direction d, replenishment control in the fermentation process, according to the production of the bacteria metabolic law, the use of "discharge and feed" way, when fermentation for a certain period of time, the production of metabolites, a small number of multiple or batch release of a part of the fermentation liquid, while supplementing a part of the fresh nutrient stake, and repeated The concentration of inhibitory substrates can be controlled by batch fermentation, and the concentration of the substrate can be too thick, causing the cells to die from dehydration due to excessive permeability pressure However, the replenishment process should also pay attention to avoid excessive one-time feeding, so as not to cause a large number of cell growth Adapting to the feed operation can ensure the production speed and efficiency of certain bacteria, extend the production of fermentation products in the same period, is conducive to improve product production capacity, while reducing product costs, but the feeding process should pay attention not to be contaminated with bacteria with the continuous reform and development of fermentation industry, the degree of mechanization of fermentation technology is bound to be higher and higher, fermentation technology will develop in the direction of high-tech The future fermentation process, in addition to the necessary inputs and outputs, will achieve a fully closed systemmanagement, people only need to set the corresponding fermentation program through the computer, can be monitored and realized at any time between the processes of the automatic flow of the product, so as to control the entire fermentation process related article: fermentation technology in the chinese medicine industry
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