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    Home > Biochemistry News > Biotechnology News > Highlights research that Cell journals have to see in February 2021

    Highlights research that Cell journals have to see in February 2021

    • Last Update: 2021-03-24
    • Source: Internet
    • Author: User
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    In a new study, researchers from Gavin Medical Research in Australia and Imperial College London and other research institutions have discovered a new type of bone cell.

    These new cells called "osteomorph" exist in the blood and bone marrow and fuse together to form osteoclasts, which are cells that specialize in breaking down bone tissue.



    In a new study, researchers from the St.

    These authors also discovered a subtype of memory T cells, which they named terminal effector prime cells.



    Viruses are the most numerous biological entities on the planet.

    This paper contains an analysis of more than 28,000 gut microbiome samples collected around the world.



    In a new study, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Biophysics in Germany, the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, and Heidelberg University Hospital have successfully tested humans in the process of transporting to the nucleus of infected cells for the first time.

    HIV-1 is the focus of this research.

    Interpretation of Cell papers! The effect of antibodies is the key to effective treatment of new coronary pneumonia


    In a new study, researchers from Washington University’s St.
    Louis School of Medicine found that the antibody effector function is a key part of the effective treatment of SARS-CoV-2---the coronavirus that causes COVID-19---infection, but when When these antibodies are used to prevent infection, they are dispensable.
    These findings may help scientists improve the next generation of antibody-based anti-COVID-19 drugs.
    The relevant research results were published online in Cell on February 12, 2021.
    The title of the paper is "Human neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 require intact Fc effector functions for optimal therapeutic protection".

    The paper’s co-corresponding author, Dr.
    Michael S.
    Diamond, professor of medicine at Washington University’s St.
    Louis School of Medicine, said, “Some companies have removed the effector function in their antibodies, while others are trying to optimize this effector function.
    In SARS-CoV-2 In the case of infection, these strategies are not supported by data.
    According to our research results, if you have a potent neutralizing antibody that has no effector function and you give it to prevent infection before infection, it is likely to work.
    But if you give it after infection, it won’t have a good effect; you need to optimize its effect function to get the most benefit.

    Detailed Cell Papers! Reverse! Past exposure to antibodies produced by the seasonal coronavirus that causes the common cold does not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection


    In a new study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia found that past exposure to the seasonal coronavirus (CoV) that causes the common cold does not produce antibodies against the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
    The relevant research results were published online on February 9, 2021 in the Cell Journal.
    The title of the paper is "Seasonal human coronavirus antibodies are boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection but not associated with protection".
    The corresponding author of the paper is Dr.
    Scott Hensley, associate professor of microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

    Previous studies have shown that recent exposure to seasonal coronaviruses may prevent SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.
    However, this new study shows that even with such protection, this protection does not come from antibodies.

    Hensley said, “We found that before the COVID-19 pandemic, many people had antibodies that could bind to SARS-CoV-2, but these antibodies could not prevent infection.
    Although the antibodies produced by the previous coronavirus infection could not prevent SARS-CoV- 2 Infection, but the memory B cells and T cells that existed earlier may provide a certain degree of protection, or at least reduce the severity of COVID-19.
    Further research is needed to test this hypothesis.

    Cell: Tumor immunotherapy can be used to treat malignant brain cancer


    According to a recent article published in the journal Cell, scientists have discovered a potential new target for immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors.

    Scientists at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University said that the target they identified was a molecule that inhibits the anti-cancer activity of immune T cells.

    Scientists say that the molecule called CD161 is an inhibitory receptor, which they found in T cells isolated from fresh brain tumor samples (called diffuse gliomas).
    Gliomas include glioblastoma, which is the most aggressive and incurable brain tumor.
    According to the researchers, the CD161 receptor is activated by a molecule called CLEC2D on tumor cells and brain immunosuppressive cells.
    The activation of CD161 attenuates the T cell response to tumor cells.

    Cell: The common fungus in the intestine is like a vaccine, which can cause an immune response to prevent pathogenic fungal infections


    In a new study, researchers from research institutions such as the Weill Cornell Medical College in the United States have discovered that common fungi that usually exist in the intestine train the immune system to deal with their more dangerous relatives.
    Failure in this process can leave people vulnerable to deadly fungal infections.
    It reveals a new twist in the complex relationship between humans and their related microorganisms, and points the way for the development of new therapies that may help combat the rising number of drug-resistant pathogens.
    The relevant research results were published online on February 5, 2021 in the Cell Journal.
    The title of the paper is "Human gut mycobiota tune immunity via CARD9-dependent induction of anti-fungal IgG antibodies".

    This new discovery stems from research on inflammatory bowel disease, a disease that usually causes patients to carry a larger-than-normal number of fungi in their intestines.
    These patients often have strong antibody responses to the mannan molecules common to many fungi.
    However, Dr.
    Iliyan Iliev, the corresponding author of the paper and associate professor of medical immunology in the Department of Gastrointestinal and Hepatology at Weill Cornell Medical College, noted that the healthy controls in these studies also had a certain level of antifungal antibodies.
    Iliev said, “In the healthy people we examined, there was no actual evidence of fungal infection, so we started to think about the potential functions of these antibodies.

    Interpretation of Cell papers! Reveal a new mechanism for the immune system to monitor the brain


    Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, schizophrenia, and many other neurological and psychiatric diseases are all related to inflammation in the brain.
    There is increasing evidence that immune cells and molecules also play a key role in the normal development and function of the brain.
    But the core of the emerging field of neuroimmunology lies in a mystery: how does the immune system know what is going on in the brain? Generations of students have been told that the brain is immune exempt, which means that the immune system largely avoids the brain.

    Now, in a new study, researchers from Washington University's St.
    Louis School of Medicine believe they have figured out how the immune system monitors what is happening in the brain.
    Immune cells reside in the meninges, the tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord, where they take samples when fluid is flushed out of the brain.
    The researchers say that if these cells detect signs of infection, disease or injury, they will be ready to initiate an immune response to face the problem.
    These findings open up the possibility of targeting immune cells located in such surveillance sites as a means of treating diseases driven by brain inflammation.
    The relevant research results were published online in Cell on January 27, 2021.
    The title of the paper is "Functional characterization of the dural sinuses as a neuroimmune interface".

    Cell: The new coronavirus N439K variant is similar to wild-type virus in virulence and transmission ability, but it can bind human ACE2 receptor more strongly


    In a new study, an international research team described the impact and molecular mechanism of an amino acid change (N439K) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein).
    SARS-CoV-2 carrying this mutation is both common and rapidly spreading around the world.
    The relevant research results were published online on January 28, 2021 in the Cell Journal.
    The title of the paper is "Circulating SARS-CoV-2 spike N439K variants maintain fitness while evading antibody-mediated immunity".

    These researchers found that SARS-CoV-2 carrying the mutation is similar to the wild-type virus in virulence and transmission ability, but it can bind to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors more strongly.
    Importantly, they found that this mutation confers resistance to the virus against some people’s serum antibodies and resistance to many neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, including combination drug treatments authorized by the U.
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency use.
    One of the neutralizing antibodies.

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